Sociology Final review

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1

What is sociological imagination?

an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past.

2

Who described sociological imagination?

C. Wright Mills

3

What is a key element of the sociological imagination?

the ability to view one's own society as an outsider would rather than from the perspective of personal experience and cultural biases.

4

what does science refer to?

the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation.

5

what is natural science?

the study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change

6

astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics are all. . .

natural sciences

7

What is social science?

the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change/

8

sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology, and political science are all. . .

social sciences

9

What do sociologists focus on?

the influence that society has on people's attitudes and behavior and the ways in which people interact and shape society.

10

What does common sense rest on?

a person's commonly held beliefs rather than on systematic analysis of facts.

11

What is a theory?

a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior. It may have both explanatory and predictive behavior.

12

Who developed the original theory about the relationship between suicide and social factors?

Emile Durkheim

13

Who coined the term sociology?

Auguste Comte

14

Who wrote the first book on sociological methods?

Harriet Martineau

15

Who applied Darwin's theory of evolution to sociology?

Herbert Spencer

16

what is anomie

refers to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.

17

what is verstehen?

the German word for "understanding" or "insight"

18

what does "ideal type" mean?

a construct or model for evaluating specific cases (that which to compare something to)

19

who wrote the "Communist Manifesto"?

Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels

20

who's work encouraged sociologists to view society through the eyes of those segments of the population that rarely influence decision making.

Karl Marx

21

W.E.B. Dubois believed. . .

knowledge is essential in combatting prejudice and achieving tolerance and justice.

22

what is double consciousness and who coined the term?

refers to the division of an individual's identity into two or more social realities. coined by Dubois.

23

what is cultural capital?

refers to noneconomic goods such as family, background, education, which are reflected in a knowledge of language and arts.

24

what is social capital?

refers to the collective benefit of social networks, which are built on reciprocal trust.

25

functionalist perspective is? . . .

a sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.

26

who was the prime advocate for functionalism?

Max Weber

27

what are manifest functions?

an open, stated, and conscious function. involves the intended, recognized consequences of an aspect of society.

28

what are latent functions?

unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution

29

what is a dysfunction?

refers to an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability

30

conflict perspective

a sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation

31

the Marxist view

the struggle between social clad=sses is inevitable, given the exploitation of workers

32

feminist perspective

sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization, tends to focus on the macro level

33

queer theory

the study of society from the perspective of a broad spectrum of sexual identities, including heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality

34

interactionist perspective

a sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole

35

what is "slugging"?

to avoid driving to work, commuters gather together, at certain preappointed places to seek rides from complete strangers.

36

nonverbal communication

the sending of messages through the use of gestures, facial expressions, and postures

37

dramaturgical approach

a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers

38

who popularized the dramaturgical approach/

Erving Goffman

39

what is applied sociology?

the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations

40

what is clinical sociology?

it is dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships (as in family therapy) or restructuring social institutions (as in the reorganization of a medical center) take direct responsibility for implementation

41

what is basic sociology?

(pure sociology) seeks a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena

42

globalization

the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas.

43

A natural scientist would be likely to study. . .

rock formations and composition in the Grand Canyon

44

A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, and power is. . .

social inequality