blood

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created 3 years ago by Marissa23
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1

What type of substances does blood transport

Oxygen, CO2, nutrients, waste,heat, and hormones.

2

how does blood protect the body

maintenance of normal Ph, normal body fluid volume, hemostasis, fight infection, and maintain homeostasis.

3

what is the blood volume ranges and its Ph level

from 4 to 6 liters (slightly over 1gallon)

Ph range of blood is 7.35-7.45.

4

Where does blood get it's pigment from

pigment protein calledhemoglobin in erythrocytes – blood turns red when
hemoglobin binds with O2, and turns dark red or blue when hemoglobin binds with CO2

5

Anemia:

a condition where the oxygen – carrying
capacity of blood is reduced due to RBC or hemoglobin
deficiency , and result in lack of energy in the person.

6

nutritional anemia

caused by a diet lacking sufficient
iron , essential amino acids , or vitamin B12.

7

pernicious anemia

caused by insufficient erythropoietin
due to the inability of the stomach produce "intrinsic factor"
for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine

8

-hemorrhagic anemia

caused by excessive loss of RBC
through internal bleeding

9

-hemolytic anemia

caused by rupturing of RBC due to
defects in hemoglobin , enzymes , or agents such as
parasites , toxins , and incompatible blood transfusion

10

aplastic anemia

caused by destruction of red bone
marrow due to toxins , radiation , or certain drugs.

11

sickle – cell anemia

– caused by an abnormal kind of
hemoglobin called "Hb-S" that bends the RBC into sickle
shape , which can rupture the cell easily reduce oxygen
delivery , and lodge RBC in capillaries . [this genetic
disease has the highest frequency , 1/250 , in the African –
American group].

12

Policythemia:

(a disorder where HCT is greater than
55% increasing the viscosity of blood , and results in
sluggish circulation, hypertension , thrombosis , or
hemorrhage) divided into primary and secondary
policythemia . and policythemia vera .

13

lekocytes

  • less than 0.1% of blood
  • spherical, larger than erythrocytes
  • function in lymphatic system for defense
  • divided into 2 groups; granulococytes & agranulocytes
14

granulocytes include:

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

lymphocytes, and monocytes

15

Phagocytes

are leukocytes that engulf foreign substances

16

monocytes

develop into macrophages and travel longer distances to find foreign substances

17

specific function of WBC

--neutrophils

phagocytize small particles in blood or connective tissue

18

specific function of WBC

--eosinophils

in the blood, controls inflammation and allergic reaction

19

specific function of WBC

--basohhiles

release anticoagulant(prevents spontaneous blood clotting)

histamine(to enhance inflammation)

20

specific function of WBC

--monocots

phagocytize large particles in connective tissue

21

specific function of WBC

--lymphocytes

attacks foreign agents directly(under cell mediated immunity) or

by forming antibodies(under antibody medicated immunity)

22

Thrombocytes(platelet)

  • critical in forming platelet plug in hemostasis and fibrinogen with forming blood clots
  • performs amoeboid motion
  • average life span is 5-9 days
23

Plasma Plasma

--albumin

  • critical in maintaining osmotic pressure in blood and body fluids
  • globulin- serves as proven transporters(steered hormones)
  • fibrinogen- converts into fibrins and forms blood clots
24

Plasma Plasma

plasma lifts include

triglycerides, phospholipids, & cholesterol

they combine with protein globulins and form lipoproteins

25

Plasma Plasma

VLDL(very low density lipoproteins)

  • have high amounts of triglyceride
  • transports triglycerides synthesized in liver to from carbs to adipose cells(bad cholesterol)
26

Plasma Plasma

low density lipoprotein(LDL)

  • have high amounts of cholesterol
  • delivers cholesterol to various cells including liver cells(bad cholesterol)
27

HDL(high density lipoprotein)

  • good cholesterol
  • high concentration of protein
  • low concentration of lipids
28

function of HDL

transports to the livermemnants of chylomicrons that have given up their cholesterol

High HDL to low LDL wards of plaque formation & hear disease

29

Major events of RBC destruction

  • squeezing through capillaries
  • macrophages in liver & spleen phagocytize damage RBCs
  • Hemoglobin from RBCs is decomposed into hem and globin
  • heme is decompose dingo iron & biliverdin
  • Iron is made avail. for reuse in synthesis of new hemoglobin or stored in liver as ferritin
  • some biliverdin is converted into bilirubin
  • biliverdin and bilirubin are excreted in bile
30

hormonal control of RBC production

  • kidney & liver tissue experience an O2 deficiency
  • tissues release erythropoietin
  • erythropoietin travels to bone morrow and stimulates increase of RBC production
  • increased # are released into circulation, )2 rises
  • O2 concentration in kidney & live rises, release of erythropoietin decreases
31

Dietary factors affecting RBC production

--vitamin B12

  • requires intrinsic factor for absorption via small intestine
  • source: absorbed from small intstine
  • function: DNA synthesis
32

Dietary factors affecting RBC production

--Iron

  • requires vitamin C for absorption small intestines
  • source: absorbed from small intestine; conserved during red cell destruction and ready for reuse
33

Dietary factors affecting RBC production

--folic acid

  • source: absorbed form small intestines
  • function: DNA synthesis