Assume that a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will most directly affect the ___.
synthesis of ATP.
What occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
glycolysis and fermentation
Testosterone functions inside a cell by ___.
binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes.
What type of signaling is represented in the figure?
Starting with citrate, what combination of products would result from three acetyl CoA molecules entering the citric acid cycle?
ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2
Citric acid cycle occurs in___.
What is the correct chromosomal condition of prometaphase of mitosis?
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
stroma of the chloroplast
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly to what process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
If an animal cell suddenly lost the ability to produce GTP, what might happen to its signaling system?
it would not be able to activate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
In cyanobacteria, where is chlorophyll located?
in the infolded plasma membrane
When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what happens? The more electronegative atom is...
reduced, and energy is released.
An inhibitor of what could be used to block the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?
Scientists isolate cells in various phases of the cell cycle. They find a group of cells that have 1 1/2 times more DNA than G1 phase cells. The cells of this group are ___.
in the S phase of the cell cycle
Binding of a signaling molecule to which type of receptor leads directly to change in the distribution of ions on opposite sides of the membrane?
ligand-gated ion channel
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate ___.
two molecules of ATP are used and four molecules of ATP are produced.
When a neuron responds to a particular neurotransmitter by opening gated ion channels, the neurotransmitter is serving as which part of the signal pathway?
Metaphase is characterized by...
aligning of chromosomes on the equator
How do plant cell and animal cell cytokinesis differ?
plant cells deposit vesicles containing cell-wall building blocks on the metaphase plate; animal cells form a cleavage furrow
Substrate level phosphorylation counts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?
The first gap in the cell cycle (G1) corresponds to...
normal growth and cell fucntion
What are the products of linear electron flow?
ATP and NADPH
What event accompanies energy absorption by chlorophyll?
An electron is excited.
At what phase are centrioles beginning to move apart in animal cells?
What describes the results of the following reaction?
C6H12O6+6 CO2+6 H2O
O2 is the oxidizing agent, and C6H12O6 is the reducing agent.
Caffeien is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Therefore, the cells of a person who has recently consumed coffee would have increased levels of ___.
In a plant cell, there is the ETC located?
Thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
Which are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH
One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, and then activating relay proteins. Which type does this?
Receptor tyrosine kinases
Consider this pathway: epinephrine --> G protein coupled receptor --> G protein --> adenylyl cyclase --> cAMP. The second messenger in this pathway is___.
If there are 20 duplicated chromosomes in a cell, how many centromeres are there?
A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. How many picograms would be found at the end of G2?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to produce a six-carbon molecule, which is then split to produce two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. After phosphoglyceration and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more needs to happen to complete the Calvin cycle?
regeneration of RuBP
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are...
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP
Which is a correct association?
GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light passed through a prism, thus segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria then noted which bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.
What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
bacteria congregated in those areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.
In a plant, the reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O2) is associated with...
Early investigators thought the oxygen produced by photosynthetic plants came from carbon dioxide. In fact, it comes from...