bmb401 exam 4

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1

Inosine monophosphate (IMP) serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the following nucleotide:

  1. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
  2. Cytidine monophosphate (CMP)
  3. Uridine monophosphate (UMP)
  4. Thymidine monophosphate (TMP)

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)

2

Inosine monophosphate (IMP) serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the following nucleotide:

  1. Cytidine monophosphate (CMP)
  2. Uridine monophosphate (UMP)
  3. Guanosine monophosphate (GMP)
  4. Thymidine monophosphate (TMP)

Guanosine monophosphate (GMP)

3

Inosine monophosphate (IMP) serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the which nucleotide(s)

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and Guanosine monophosphate (GMP)

4

Uridine triphosphate (UTP) serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the which nucleotide(s)

Cytidine triphosphate (CTP)

5

Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the which nucleotide(s)

dCTP

6

(d)UTP serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the which nucleotide(s)

dTMP

7

Esterification of a tRNA at its 3’-end to alanine requires

ATP

tRNAAla

Alanyl-tRNA synthetase

All of the above

All of the above

8

ATP harbors one or more of the following:

  1. N-glycosidic bond
  2. Phosphoester bond
  3. Phosphoanhydride bond
  4. All of the above

All of the above

9

which bonds does ATP harbor

  1. N-glycosidic bond
  2. Phosphoester bond
  3. Phosphoanhydride bond
10

which bonds does GTP harbor

  1. N-glycosidic bond
  2. Phosphoester bond
  3. Phosphoanhydride bond
11

which bonds does CTP harbor

  1. N-glycosidic bond
  2. Phosphoester bond
  3. Phosphoanhydride bond
12

which bonds does UTP harbor

  1. N-glycosidic bond
  2. Phosphoester bond
  3. Phosphoanhydride bond
13

which bonds does UDP-Glucose harbor

  1. N-glycosidic bond
  2. Phosphoester bond
  3. Phosphoanhydride bond
14

In the context of nucleic acids, pyrimidines include:

  1. Cytosine
  2. Thymine
  3. Uracil
15

In the context of nucleic acids, purines include:

(G) Guanine
(A) Adenine
(I) Hypoxanthine

16

DNA replication occurs via the following model:

  1. Recursive
  2. Dispersive
  3. Conservative
  4. Semi-conservative

4. Semi-conservative

17

In the context of RNA processing, the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs plays one or more of the following roles

  1. Prevents nuclear export of mRNA
  2. Prevents mRNA translation by ribosomes
  3. Prevents degradation of mRNA by exonucleases
  4. All of the above

3. Prevents degradation of mRNA by exonucleases

18

In the context of RNA processing, the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs plays one or more of the following roles

  1. Regulates nuclear export of mRNA
  2. Promotes mRNA translation by ribosomes
  3. Prevents degradation of mRNA by 3'-exonucleases
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

19

In the context of RNA processing, the 5'-cap of eukaryotic mRNAs plays one or more of the following roles

  1. Facilitates mRNA splicing by spliceosome
  2. Regulates nuclear export of mRNA
  3. Promotes mRNA translation by ribosomes
  4. Prevents degradation of mRNA by 5'-exonucleases
  5. All of the above

5. All of the above

20

In the context of RNA processing, the 5'-cap of eukaryotic mRNAs plays which roles

  1. Facilitates mRNA splicing by spliceosome
  2. Regulates nuclear export of mRNA
  3. Promotes mRNA translation by ribosomes
  4. Prevents degradation of mRNA by 5'-exonucleases
21

In the context of RNA processing, the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs plays which roles

  1. Regulates nuclear export of mRNA
  2. Promotes mRNA translation by ribosomes
  3. Prevents degradation of mRNA by 3'-exonucleases
22

In the context of DNA replication, Okazaki fragments are synthesized:

  1. On the leading strand
  2. By DNA polymerase ε
  3. In a discontinuous manner
  4. All of the above

3. In a discontinuous manner

23

In the context of DNA replication, Okazaki fragments are synthesized:

  1. On the lagging strand
  2. By DNA polymerase δ
  3. In a discontinuous manner
24

In the context of RNA transcription, one or more of the following cis-acting elements serves as a substitute for TATA box in the promoters of many eukaryotic genes:

  1. CAAT
  2. MTE
  3. BRE
  4. All of the above

2. MTE

25

In the context of RNA transcription, which cis-acting elements serves as a substitute for TATA box in the promoters of many eukaryotic genes

1. INR

2. MTE

3. DPE

26

Thymidylate synthetase promotes the synthesis of one or more of the following metabolites:

  1. dTMP
  2. dTDP
  3. dTTP
  4. All of the above
  1. dTMP
27

conversion of R5P to IMP requires:

ATP, glutamine, glycine, aspartate

R5P -> PRPP -> IMP

28

conversion of IMP to AMP requires:

aspartate, GTP

IMP -> adenylosuccinate -> AMP

29

conversion of AMP to (d)ATP requires:

ATP, NTP

AMP -> ADP -> dADP -> (d)ATP

30

conversion of IMP to GMP requires:

NAD+, H2O, glutamine, ATP

IMP -> XMP -> GMP

31

conversion of GMP to (d)GTP requires:

ATP, NTP

GMP -> GDP -> dGDP -> (d)GTP

32

conversion of R5P to UMP requires:

ATP, HCO3 -, glutamine, H2O, aspartate, quinone, PRPP

33

conversion of UMP to UTP requires:

ATP, NTP

UMP -> UDP -> dUDP -> (d)UTP

34

conversion of UTP to CTP requires:

glutamine, ATP, H2O

UTP -> CTP by CTP synthetase

35

conversion of CTP to (d)CTP requires:

NDP, NTP

CTP -> CDP -> dCDP -> (d)CTP

36

conversion of dUTP to dTMP requires:

H2O

dUTP -> dUMP -> dTMP

37

conversion of dTMP to dTTP requires:

ATP, NTP

dTMP -> dTDP -> dTTP

38

ribose phosphate pyrophosphokinase promotes the synthesis of which metabolite(s)

PRPP

R5P -> PRPP

39

adenylosuccinate synthetase promotes the synthesis of which metabolite(s)

adenylosuccinate

IMP -> adenylosuccinate -> AMP

40

adenylosuccinate lyase promotes the synthesis of which metabolite(s)

AMP

IMP -> adenylosuccinate -> AMP

41

adenylate kinase promotes the synthesis of which metabolite(s)

ADP

AMP -> ADP -> dADP -> (d)ATP

42

ribonucleotide reductase promotes the synthesis of one or more of the following metabolites:

  1. dADP
  2. dGDP
  3. dUDP
  4. dCDP
  5. All of the above

5. All of the above

43

ribonucleotide reductase promotes the synthesis of which metabolite(s)

  1. dADP
  2. dGDP
  3. dUDP
  4. dCDP
44

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the helix-turn-helix (HTH) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Two α-helices
  2. Flexible and disordered inter-helical region
  3. Lack of reversal of polypeptide direction at the inter-helical region
  4. All of the above
  1. Two α-helices
45

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the helix-turn-helix (HTH) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Two α-helices
  2. Extended and ordered inter-helical region
  3. Reversal of polypeptide direction at the inter-helical region
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

46

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the helix-loop-helix (HLH) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Two α-helices
  2. Flexible and disordered inter-helical region
  3. Lack of reversal of polypeptide direction at the inter-helical region
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

47

examples of HLH include

HIF1 and Myc

48

examples of HTH include

CAP and λ

49

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the zinc-finger (ZF) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Zn2+ divalent ion
  2. β-hairpin and α-helix
  3. Tetrahedrally coordinated by 4 ligands
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

50

examples of ZF include

ERα and EGR1

51

In the context of chromatin remodeling, histones are usually subject to one or more of the following post-translational modifications (PTMs):

  1. Phosphorylation
  2. Nitrosylation
  3. Carboxylation
  4. All of the above
  1. Phosphorylation
52

In the context of chromatin remodeling, histones are usually subject to one or more of the following post-translational modifications (PTMs):

  1. Phosphorylation
  2. Methylation
  3. Acetylation
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

53

In the context of chromatin remodeling, histones are usually subject to which post-translational modifications (PTMs):

  1. Phosphorylation
  2. Methylation
  3. Acetylation
54

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the leucine zipper (LZ) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Leucine residue at every seventh position
  2. 4-5 successive heptads of amino acids
  3. α-helicies packed against each other
  4. Two amphipathic LZ polypeptide chains
  5. All of the above

5. All of the above

55

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the leucine zipper (LZ) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Leucine residue at every seventh position
  2. 4-5 successive heptads of amino acids
  3. α-helicies packed against each other
  4. Two amphipathic LZ polypeptide chains
56

In the context of DNA-binding proteins, the leucine zipper (LZ) structural motif is usually characterized by:

  1. Leucine at every fifth position
  2. Seven successive heptads of amino acids
  3. Two α-helices wrapped around each other into a coiled coil
  4. All of the above

3. Two α-helices wrapped around each other into a coiled coil

57

The diameter of the DNA double-helix measures approximately:

  1. 20Å
  2. 12Å
  3. 22Å
  4. 34Å
  1. 20Å
58

helical pitch of the DNA double-helix measures approximately:

34Å/turn

59

helical density of the DNA double-helix measures approximately:

10bp/turn

60

helical rise of the DNA double-helix measures approximately:

3.4Å/bp

61

helical twist of the DNA double-helix measures approximately:

36o/bp

62

base tilt of the DNA double-helix measures approximately:

6o

63

In the context of RNA transcription, the cis-acting element BRE within the promoters of eukaryotic genes binds or recruits the following transcription factor:

  1. TFIA
  2. TFIIB
  3. TFIID
  4. TFIIE

2. TFIIB

64

In the context of RNA transcription, TBP binds or recruits the following transcription factor:

  1. TFIA
  2. TFIIB
  3. TFIID
  4. TFIIE

3. TFIID

65

DNA denaturation is best monitored by measuring changes in its:

  1. Absorbance
  2. Fluorescence
  3. Viscosity
  4. Enthalpy
  1. Absorbance
66

A tRNA harboring the anticodon for alanine is designated as:

  1. tRNA-Ala
  2. Ala-tRNA
  3. Alanyl-tRNA
  4. tRNAAla

4. tRNAAla

67

The DNA double-helix is characterized by:

  1. 34Å helical rise
  2. 36° base tilt
  3. 10 base pairs per helical turn
  4. All of the above

3. 10 base pairs per helical turn

68

In the context of chromatin remodeling, one or more of the following histone modifications may induce chromatin relaxation so as to favor euchromatin:

  1. Acetylation
  2. Methylation
  3. Phosphorylation
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

69

In the context of eukaryotic translation termination, eRF1 mediates the:

  1. Cleavage of the peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P-site
  2. Release of the cleaved peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P-site into the cytosol
  3. Release of the ribosomal-bound mRNA into the cytosol
  4. Degradation of the ribosomal-bound mRNA
  1. Cleavage of the peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P-site
70

In the context of chromatin, a nucleosome is essentially a histone “bead” comprised of:

  1. Two negative superhelical turns of DNA
  2. (H1)2(H2A)2(H2B)2(H3)2(H4)2
  3. Contour length of 680Å
  4. All of the above
  1. Two negative superhelical turns of DNA
71

In the context of chromatin, a nucleosome is essentially a histone “bead” comprised of:

  1. Two negative superhelical turns of DNA
  2. (H2A)2(H2B)2(H3)2(H4)2
  3. Contour length of 80Å
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

72

Assuming that HNO2 induces deamination of cytosine (C) to uracil (U) within a DNA sequence called Motif 4 (5’-CGGA-3’), DNA replication would ultimately change the sequence of Motif 4 to:

  1. 5’-UGGA-3’
  2. 5’-TCCG-3’
  3. 5’-TCCA-3’
  4. 5’-TGGA-3’

4. 5’-TGGA-3’

73

In the context of eukaryotic translation elongation, eEF1A and eEF1B mediate the transfer of:

  1. Aminoacyl-tRNA from the ribosomal A-site to P-site
  2. Peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosomal P-site to A-site
  3. Cyosolic pool of aminoacyl-tRNAs into the ribosomal A-site
  4. Peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P-site to aminoacyl-tRNA at the A-site

3. Cyosolic pool of aminoacyl-tRNAs into the ribosomal A-site

74

Vertebrate chromosomes harbor telomeres that are comprised of:

  1. Tandem repeats of 3’-TTAGGG-5’ motifs
  2. Tandem repeats of 3’-CCCTAA-5’ motifs
  3. Over 1000 base pairs
  4. All of the above

3. Over 1000 base pairs

75

Vertebrate chromosomes harbor telomeres that are comprised of:

  1. Tandem repeats of 5’-TTAGGG-3’ motifs
  2. Over 1000 base pairs
76

Physical agents that can induce DNA damage include:

  1. X-rays
  2. Infared radiation
  3. Microwave radiation
  4. All of the above
  1. X-rays
77

Restriction endonucleases usually cleave DNA at palindromic sequences such as:

  1. 5’-GAATTC-3’
    3’-CTTAAG-5’
  2. 5’-GGATTC-3’
    3’-CCTAAG-5’
  3. 5’-CTGCAA-3’
    3’-GACGTT-5’
  4. All of the above
  1. 5’-GAATTC-3’
    3’-CTTAAG-5’
78

Conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) occurs via:

  1. Hydroxylation
  2. Acetylation
  3. Methylation
  4. Transamination

3. Methylation

79

In the context of chromatin, the 30-nm fiber is characterized by:

  1. 30nm diameter
  2. “Solenoid-like” diameter
  3. Negative supercoiling of DNA onto histone beads linked together by H1
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

80

In the context of RNA transcription, the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is identical to (assuming U=T):

  1. DNA noncoding strand
  2. DNA antisense strand
  3. DNA nontemplate strand
  4. All of the above

3. DNA nontemplate strand

81

In the context of RNA transcription, the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is identical to (assuming U=T):

  1. DNA coding strand
  2. DNA sense strand
  3. DNA nontemplate strand
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

82

The tRNA harbors:

  1. An anticodon arm
  2. Two stem-loop motifs
  3. A cloverleaf-like 3D conformation
  4. All of the above
  1. An anticodon arm
83

The tRNA harbors:

  1. An anticodon arm
  2. Three stem-loop motifs
  3. A cloverleaf-like 2D conformation
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

84

In the context of DNA replication termination, the RNA primers are removed by:

  1. Ribonuclease A
  2. Ribonuclease D
  3. Ribonuclease H
  4. Ribonuclease R

3. Ribonuclease H

85

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, elF2 mediates the:

  1. Recognition of 5’-cap of mRNA
  2. Recognition of poly(A) tail of mRNA
  3. Unwinding of 5’-UTR of mRNA
  4. Recruitment of methionyl-tRNAi Met

4. Recruitment of methionyl-tRNAi Met

86

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, elF4E mediates the:

  1. Recognition of 5’-cap of mRNA
  2. Recognition of poly(A) tail of mRNA
  3. Unwinding of 5’-UTR of mRNA
  4. Recruitment of methionyl-tRNAi Met
  1. Recognition of 5’-cap of mRNA
87

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, elF4G mediates the:

  1. Recognition of 5’-cap of mRNA
  2. Recognition of poly(A) tail of mRNA
  3. Unwinding of 5’-UTR of mRNA
  4. Recruitment of methionyl-tRNAi Met

2. Recognition of poly(A) tail of mRNA

88

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, elF4A mediates the:

  1. Recognition of 5’-cap of mRNA
  2. Recognition of poly(A) tail of mRNA
  3. Unwinding of 5’-UTR of mRNA
  4. Recruitment of methionyl-tRNAi Met

3. Unwinding of 5’-UTR of mRNA

89

The eukaryotic ribosome is characterized by:

  1. 40s small subunit
  2. 50s large subunit
  3. 70s overall sedimentation coefficient
  4. All of the above
  1. 40s small subunit
90

The eukaryotic ribosome is characterized by:

  1. 40s small subunit
  2. 60s large subunit
  3. 80s overall sedimentation coefficient
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

91

Conversion of ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) to uridine monophosphate (UMP) requires one of the following metabolites:

  1. Glutamate
  2. Glycine
  3. Asparagine
  4. ATP

4. ATP

92

In the context of sequencing DNA fragment, a reaction mixture must contain the following enzyme and/or reagents

  1. Restriction enzyme
  2. DNA polymerase
  3. dATP, or dGTP, or dCTP, or dTTP
  4. ddATP, or ddGTP, or ddCTP, or ddTTP

2. DNA polymerase

93

In the context of sequencing DNA fragment, a reaction mixture must contain the following enzyme and/or reagents

  1. DNA polymerase
  2. dATP, dGTP,dCTP, and dTTP
  3. ddATP, ddGTP, ddCTP, and ddTTP
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

94

Regeneration of eukaryotic telomeres requires:

  1. Telomeric DNA
  2. Telomerase RNA
  3. Telomerase reverse transcriptase
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

95

Regeneration of eukaryotic telomeres requires:

  1. Telomeric DNA
  2. Telomerase RNA
  3. Telomerase reverse transcriptase
96

In the context of RNA transcription, RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) is involved in the synthesis of:

  1. mRNA
  2. rRNA
  3. tRNA
  4. siRNA

3. tRNA

97

In the context of RNA transcription, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is involved in the synthesis of:

  1. mRNA
  2. rRNA
  3. tRNA
  4. siRNA
  1. mRNA
98

In the context of RNA transcription, RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) is involved in the synthesis of:

  1. mRNA
  2. rRNA
  3. tRNA
  4. siRNA

2. rRNA

99

B-DNA resembles A-DNA with respect to its:

  1. Handedness
  2. Helical twist
  3. Deoxyribose pucker
  4. All of the above
  1. Handedness
100

Examples of RNAs that are directly involved in gene regulation include:

  1. siRNA
  2. miRNA
  3. piRNA
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

101

Examples of RNAs that are directly involved in gene regulation include:

  1. siRNA
  2. miRNA
  3. piRNA
  4. lncRNA
102

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, the 43S complex (the preinitiation complex) harbors:

  1. elF3
  2. elF4G
  3. Methionyl-tRNAMet
  4. All of the above
  1. elF3
103

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, the p48S complex harbors:

  1. elF3
  2. elF4G
  3. Methionyl-tRNAMet
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

104

Assuming that the genetic code is comprised of a quartet of bases, the total number of four-letter codons would be:

  1. 64
  2. 128
  3. 256
  4. 512

3. 256

105

Assuming that the genetic code is comprised of a quartet of bases, the total number of three-letter codons would be:

  1. 64
  2. 128
  3. 256
  4. 512
  1. 64
106

Genetic code is essentially a language made up of:

  1. 4-letter alphabet
  2. 4-letter words
  3. 20 words in total
  4. All of the above
  1. 4-letter alphabet
107

Genetic code is essentially a language made up of:

  1. 4-letter alphabet
  2. 3-letter words
  3. 64 words in total
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

108

In the context of DNA replication elongation, the enzyme that extends the leading strand with high processivity is:

  1. DNA polymerase α
  2. DNA polymerase δ
  3. DNA polymerase ε
  4. DNA elongase

3. DNA polymerase ε

109

In the context of DNA replication elongation, the enzyme that extends the lagging strand with high processivity is:

  1. DNA polymerase α
  2. DNA polymerase δ
  3. DNA polymerase ε
  4. DNA elongase

2. DNA polymerase δ

110

In the context of eukaryotic translation termination, the ribosome comes to a grinding halt when it encounters the following codon at the A-site:

  1. AUG
  2. AGU
  3. UGA
  4. UUG

3. UGA

111

In the context of eukaryotic translation termination, the ribosome comes to a grinding halt when it encounters the following codon at the A-site:

  1. UAA
  2. UAG
  3. UGA
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

112

B-DNA differs from A-DNA in that it harbors:

  1. Fewer base pairs per helical turn
  2. Larger base tilt
  3. Narrower major groove
  4. All of the above
  1. Fewer base pairs per helical turn
113

B-DNA differs from A-DNA in that it harbors:

  1. Fewer base pairs per helical turn
  2. Smaller base tilt
  3. Wider major groove
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

114

In the context of DNA replication elongation, DNA polymerase δ:

  1. Requires DNA primase
  2. Displays low processivity
  3. Lacks 3’ -> 5’ exonuclease activity
  4. Harbors proof-reading ability

4. Harbors proof-reading ability

115

In the context of DNA replication elongation, DNA polymerase α:

  1. Displays low processivity
  2. Lacks 3’ -> 5’ exonuclease activity
  3. Lacks proof-reading ability
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

116

In the context of DNA replication elongation, DNA polymerase ε:

  1. Displays high processivity
  2. Lacks 3’ -> 5’ exonuclease activity
  3. Requires DNA primase
  4. All of the above
  1. Displays high processivity
117

In the context of DNA repair mechanisms, direct reveal (DR) usually involves:

  1. Breakage of thymine dimers
  2. Cleavage of N-glycosidic bond
  3. Excision of a distorted segment of single-stranded DNA
  4. Removal of DNA replication errors
  1. Breakage of thymine dimers
118

In the context of DNA repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER) usually involves:

  1. Breakage of thymine dimers
  2. Cleavage of N-glycosidic bond
  3. Excision of a distorted segment of single-stranded DNA
  4. Removal of DNA replication errors

2. Cleavage of N-glycosidic bond

119

In the context of DNA repair mechanisms, nucleotide excision repair (NER) usually involves:

  1. Breakage of thymine dimers
  2. Cleavage of N-glycosidic bond
  3. Excision of a distorted segment of single-stranded DNA
  4. Removal of DNA replication errors

3. Excision of a distorted segment of single-stranded DNA

120

In the context of DNA repair mechanisms, mismatch repair (MMR) usually involves:

  1. Excision of a distorted segment of daughter strand DNA
  2. Removal of DNA replication errors
  3. Rectification of small insertions/deletions
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

121

In the context of DNA replication, the sum of leading and lagging strands at each replication fork is:

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4

2. 2

122

In the context of DNA replication, the sum of leading and lagging strands in each replication bubble is:

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4

4. 4

123

A nucleoside is comprised of one or more of the following:

  1. Ribose sugar
  2. Pentose sugar
  3. Furanose sugar
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

124

Conversion of ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) to inosine monophosphate (IMP) requires one or more of the following metabolites:

  1. ATP
  2. Glutamine
  3. Glycine
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

125

The length of the minor groove along the helical axis of the DNA double-helix is approximately:

  1. 12Å
  2. 20Å
  3. 22Å
  4. 34Å
  1. 12Å
126

The length of the major groove along the helical axis of the DNA double-helix is approximately:

  1. 12Å
  2. 20Å
  3. 22Å
  4. 34Å

3. 22Å

127

In the context of RNA processing, the 5’-capping of eukaryotic mRNAs plays one or more of the following roles:

  1. Regulates nuclear export of mRNA
  2. Promotes mRNA translation by ribosomes
  3. Prevents degradation of mRNA by exonucleases
  4. All of the above

4. All of the above

128

conversion of IMP to GMP requires

ATP, NAD+, glutamine, H2O

129

In the context of eukaryotic translation elongation, a ribozyme catalyzes the transfer of:

1. Aminoacyl-tRNA from the ribosomal A site to P site

2. Peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosomal A to P

3. Cyosolic pool of aminoacyl-tRNAs into the ribosomal A site

4. Peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P site to aminoacyl-tRNA at the A site

4. Peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P site to aminoacyl-tRNA at the A site

130

The DNA double helix is characterized by:

1. 3.4 A helical rise

2. 36 degrees base tilt

3. 12 bp per helical turn

4. All of the above

1. 3.4 A helical rise

131

In the context of RNA transcription, cis-acting elements that negatively affect gene transcription are called:

1. Insulators

2. Promoters

3. Silencers

4. Enhancers

3. Silencers

132

In the context of RNA transcription, cis-acting elements that positively affect gene transcription are called:

1. Insulators

2. Promoters

3. Silencers

4. Enhancers

4. Enhancers

133

IMP serves as a precursor for the synthesis of the following nucleotide:

1. AMP

2. CMP

3. UMP

4. TMP

1. AMP

134

DNA denaturation is physicochemical process that can be best described as:

Isothermal

Adiabatic

Reversible

Irreversible

Reversible

135

In the context of DNA binding proteins, the leucine zipper structural motif is usually characterized by:

1. Leucine at every fifth position

2. Five successive heptads of amino acids

3. α-helical bundle

4. All of the above

2. Five successive heptads of amino acids

136

In the context of sequencing a DNA fragment, a reaction mixture must contain the following enzyme and/or reagent(s):

Restriction enzyme

Rna polymerase

dATP, dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP

ddATP or ddGTP or ddCTP or ddTTP

dATP, dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP

137

In the context of RNA transcription, the transcriptional start site (TSS) is located:

Within the promoter

Upstream of the promoter

Downstream of the promoter

All of the above

Within the promoter

138

Regeneration of eukaryotic telomeres requires:

Chromosomal DNA

RNA primer

Telomerase reverse transcriptase

All of the above

Telomerase reverse transcriptase

139

Chemical agents that can induce DNA damage include:

OH radical

H2O2

HNO2

All of the above

All of the above

140

In the context of eukaryotic translation termination, the cleavage of the peptidyl moiety of peptidyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P-site is mediated by:

eRF1

eRF2

eRF3

Rli1

eRF1

141

In the context of eukaryotic translation elongation, peptidyl transferase is a:

Zymogen

Component of 28S rRNA

Component of 40S ribosomal subunit

All of the above

Component of 28S rRNA

142

In the context of eukaryotic translation elongation, peptidyl transferase is a:

Ribozyme

Component of 28S rRNA

Component of 60S ribosomal subunit

All of the above

All of the above

143

In the context of DNA replication initiation, DNA polymerase α:

Associates with DNA primase

Displays high processivity

Harbors 3’->5’ exonuclease activity

Harbors proof-reading ability

Associates with DNA primase

144

In the context of nucleic acids, purines include:

Guanine

Cytosine

Thymine

Uracil

Guanine

145

GC-rich DNA sequences tend to have a higher melting temperature due to the fact that GC bases engage in additional or enhanced:

Hydrogen bonding

Ionic interactions

Stacking interactions

All of the above

Stacking interactions

146

Esterification of a tRNA at its 3’-end to alanine requires

ATP

tRNA Ala

Alanyl-tRNA synthetase

All of the above

All of the above

147

B-DNA differs from A-DNA in that it harbors:

Larger helical diameter

Larger helical twist

Smaller helical rise

All of the above

Larger helical twist

148

In the context of DNA replication, Okazaki fragments are synthesized:

On the leading strand

By DNA polymerase δ

In a continuous manner

All of the above

By DNA polymerase δ

149

A plot of the extent of DNA denaturation as a function of external temperature can be best described as:

Linear

Hyperbolic

Sigmoidal

Exponential

Sigmoidal

150

The "business end" of coenzyme A (CoA) harbors an hydroxyl (-OH) group.

false

151

DNA is a biopolymer that harbors O-GLYCOSIDIC bonds.

false

152

Biosynthesis of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) from inosine monophosphate (IMP) requires GTP and NAD+.

false

153

Conversion of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) to deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) requires THYMIDYLATE KINASE and RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASE

false

154

DNA is a biopolymer that harbors PHOSPHOANHYDRIDE bonds

false

155

Conversion of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to deoxyadenosine diphosphate (dADP) requires ADENYLATE KINASE and RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASE

true

156

Conversion of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) to deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) requires THYMIDYLATE KINASE and NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE.

true

157

Biosynthesis of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from inosine monophosphate (IMP) requires GTP and ASPARTATE.

true

158

B-DNA differs from A-DNA in that it harbors a rather larger helical diameter.

false

159

DNA denaturation can be best monitored by measuring changes in its absorbance at a wavelength of 280nm.

false

160

GC-rich DNA sequences tend to have a higher melting temperature due to the fact that GC base pairs engage in additional or enhanced HYDROGEN BONDING relative to AT base pairs.

false

161

Upon denaturation, the DNA double-helix experiences an INCREASE in viscosity but a DECREASE in hyperchromicity.

false

162

DNA denaturation is a physicochemical process that can be described as IRREVERSIBLE.

false

163

B-DNA differs from A-DNA in that it harbors a rather smaller helical twist.

false

164

B-DNA differs from A-DNA in that it harbors a rather larger helical twist.

true

165

A plot of the extent of DNA denaturation as a function of external temperature can be best described as HYPERBOLIC.

false

166

B-DNA resembles A-DNA with respect to its sugar puckering.

false

167

GC-rich DNA sequences tend to have a higher melting temperature due to the fact that GC bases engage in additional or enhanced STACKING INTERACTIONS relative to AT bases.

true

168

A pairs with T via 3 hydrogen bonds

false

169

A pairs with T via 2 hydrogen bonds

true

170

restriction endonucleases cleave double-stranded DNA

true

171

In the context of DNA replication, the ratio of replication forks to replication bubbles at each replication origin is 1.

false

172

In the context of DNA replication initiation, DNA polymerase α associates with DNA primase.

true

173

In the context of DNA replication initiation, DNA polymerase α harbors a rather high processivity.

false

174

In the context of DNA replication, the ratio of replication forks to replication bubbles at each replication origin is 2.

true

175

Chemical agents that can induce DNA damage include H2O2 and HNO2.

true

176

In the context of DNA replication, the sum of leading and lagging strands within each replication bubble is 2.

false

177

In the context of DNA replication, the sum of replication forks and replication bubbles at each replication origin is 4.

false

178

In the context of DNA replication, the sum of leading and lagging strands at each replication fork is 4.

false

179

In the context of DNA replication termination, the RNA primers are removed by Ribonuclease A.

false

180

In the context of DNA repair mechanisms, direct reversal (DR) usually involves the cleavage of N-glycosidic bond.

false

181

In the context of RNA transcription, the cis-acting element TATA box within the promoters of eukaryotic genes serves as a docking site for the recruitment of TFIID.

true

182

Prior to being translated into a sequence of amino acids, the mRNA sequence is read as a contiguous set of triplets of nucleotides referred to as EXONS.

false

183

In the context of RNA transcription, the initial unwinding/melting of DNA so as to facilitate the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is usually driven by TFIID.

true

184

In the context of RNA transcription, the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is identical to the DNA noncoding strand (assume that U=T).

false

185

In the context of RNA transcription, the nucleotide sequence of mRNA is identical to the DNA coding strand (assume that U=T).

true

186

In the context of RNA processing, the 5'-capping of eukaryotic mRNAs facilitates their translation by the ribosomes.

true

187

In the context of RNA transcription, cis-acting elements that positively affect gene transcription are called ENHANCERS.

true

188

Examples of RNAs that are directly involved in RNA transcription and modification include snRNA and miRNA.

false

189

In the context of RNA transcription, the cis-acting elements that serve as a substitute for the TATA box in the promoters of many eukaryotic genes include INR and BRE.

false

190

In the context of RNA transcription, RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) is primarily involved in the synthesis of rRNA.

true

191

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, the protein responsible for differentiating between methionyl-tRNAi Met and methionyl-tRNAMet is eIF2.

true

192

Of the 64 codons, only 60 encode amino acids.

false

193

Esterification of a tRNA at its 3'-end to alanine is catalyzed by alanyl-tRNA transferase.

false

194

In the eukaryotic ribosome, the A-site accommodates the outgoing tRNA after donating its amino acid to the nascent polypeptide chain.

false

195

In the context of eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF4E mediates the recognition of poly(A) tail of mRNA.

false

196

A tRNA can recognize multiple codons within a mRNA due to the fact that it tolerates base mismatch by hobbling.

false

197

A tRNA can recognize multiple codons within a mRNA due to the fact that it tolerates base mismatch by wobbling.

true

198

In the eukaryotic ribosome, the P-site accommodates the tRNA that is attached to the nascent polypeptide chain.

true

199

Of the 20 amino acids, all but MET and TRP are encoded by more than one codon.

true

200

The genetic code is said to be "degenerate" due to the fact that each amino acid is usually specified by more than one CODON.

true

201

In the context of chromatin remodeling, post-translational phosphorylation of histones decreases the overall negative charge on histones.

false

202

In the context of chromatin, a nucleosome is essentially a histone "bead" comprised of (H1)2(H2A)2(H2B)2(H3)2(H4)2.

false

203

The zinc finger (ZF) structural motif is usually comprised of a Zn2+ divalent ion sandwiched between a two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an α-helix.

true

204

The leucine zipper (LZ) structural motif is usually comprised of a pair of amphipathic α-helices wrapped around each other like a pair of scissors, wherein each α-helix harbors a leucine at every seventh position.

true

205

In the context of chromatin, the 30-nm fiber is characterized by a "beads-on-a-string" appearance.

false

206

In the context of chromatin, the histone that is most conserved at amino acid level across all species is H4.

true

207

In the context of chromatin remodeling, methyllysine (MeK) on histones may serve as a docking site for a bromodomain.

false

208

The structural motif within the activator protein 1 (AP1) responsible for its binding to DNA double-helix in a sequence-specific manner is best described as LEUCINE ZIPPER.

true

209

In the context of chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation usually occurs on a cytosine base.

true

210

The structural motif within the activator protein 1 (AP1) responsible for its binding to DNA double-helix in a sequence-specific manner is best described as ZINC FINGER.

false