Human Anatomy

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Class Notes - Brain
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human anatomy
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1

MIDBRAIN

MESENCEPHALON

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

INFERIOR COLLICULUS

CEREBRAL PEDUNCLE-contain substantia nigra,motor center that relays inhibitory signals preventn unwanted movemnts. Degeneration of neurons of substantia nigra leads to m. tremor of Parkinsons

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CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS-mediate visual attention, visually tracking moving objects

INFERIOR COLLICULUS-they mediate the reflexive turning of the head in response to a sound

-they are on the dorsum or "roof" & hence region is called tectum or tectal plate

-reflex centers (vision, hearing)

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PONS

BRAINSTEM

SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE

MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE

INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE

4TH VENTRICLE

CONNECTS 2 HEMISPHERE OF CEREBELLUM

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MEDULLA OBLONGATA

myelencephalon

OLIVE, NUCLEUS CUNEATUS

NUCLEUS GRACILIS

upper -forms lower region 4th ventricle. Dorsal-site of origin for last seven cranial n. which exit the medulla ventrally.

most important part of brain, involuntary helps transfer neural msg from brain to spinal cord

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MEDULLA OBLONGATA

BRAINSTEM

1-CARDIAC CENTER-regulates rate/force of heartbeat

2-VASOMOTOR CENTER-regulates bp

3-RESPIRATORY CENTERS-regulates rhythm/depth of breathing

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ANTERIOR ASPECT-MYELENCEPHALON

MEDULLA OBLONGATA

-PYRAMIDAL TRACTS

-MEDIAN RAPHE

-OLIVE (NUCLEUS)

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POSTERIOR ASPECT OF

BRAINSTEM

-CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES

-CAUDATE

-PINEAL GLAND

-CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA

-4TH VENTRICLE DEROOFED

-11TH CRANIAL NERVE

-CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES

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BASAL NUCLEI IN BRAINSTEM

(MIDBRAIN)

-SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

-CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT

-RETICULAR FORMATION

-PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY MATTER

-NUCLEUS FOR OCULOMOTOR NERVE

-MEDIAL LEMNISCUS

-RED NUCLEUS

-SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

-CN III

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BASAL NUCLEI

-smooth voluntary movement

-failure can result in various dyskineasias or purposeless movements

-typical names: caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, subthalamic nuclei

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LIMBIC SYSTEM

-multiple nuclei deep in brain FOR:

-expression of fear, anger, rage, joy, sadness, and libido

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LIMBIC SYSTEM

-CINGULATE GYRUS. -FORNIX

-ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCELUS

-SEPTAL NUCLEUS, -MAMILLARY BODY

-HIPPOCAMPUS, AMYDALOID BODY

PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS

OLFACTORY TRACT, OLFACTORY BULB

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AFFERENT/EFFERENT

PATHWAYS

Efferent pathways carry signals away from CNS . They signal that your brain sends something like blinking.

Afferent signals come from outside stimuli & tell your brain what they're sensing such as temp. Afferent bring stimuli to brain, where signal is integrated & processed. The brain then coordinates a response via efferent signals back to rest of body.

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AFFERENT PATHWAY

ASCENDING

A. SENSORY STIMULI

B. VISCERAL STIMULI

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EFFERENT PATHWAY

DESCENDING

A.SOMATIC N.S. - MOTOR NEURONS-SKELETAL M. EFFECTOR ORGANS

B.AUTOMATIC N.S. (1)SYMPTHATEIC N.S.

(2) PARASYMPATHETIC N.S. - smooth m. cardiac m. glands - Effector organs

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SIMPLE SPINAL REFLEX PATHWAY

1-STIMULUS ACTIVATES RECEPTOR

2-NERVE IMPULSE TRAVELS THRU SENSORY NEURON TO SPINAL CORD

3- NERVE IMPULSE PROCESSED IN INTEGRATION CTR BY INTERNEURONS

4-MOTOR NEURON TRANSMITS NERVE IMPULSE TO EFFECTOR

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CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES

CEREBRAL CRUS

Link remainder remainder brainstem to thalami thereby cerebrum. Most anterior structure of brain

Contain large ascending/descending tracts that run to & from the cerebrum.

Substantia nigra located w/in cerebral peduncles

connected to pon, part of frontal brain stem looks like swelling (mass nerve fibers, one on each side of brain, stem like connector

Help transport nerve impulses from higher part of brain & brain stem, lower part of brain to other areas of CNS

Help refine our movements.

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CAUDATE NUCLEI

are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioural functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controlling approach-attachment behaviours

The caudate nucleus is located lateral to the lateral ventricles

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CSF

It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. There is about 125mL of CSF at any one time, and about 500mL is generated every day.

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CSF

CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canalof the spinal cord. There is also a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid.

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CSF

The majority of CSF is produced from within the two lateral ventricles. From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle, then the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle. From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, and the two lateral apertures.[1] CSF is present within the subarachnoid space, which covers the brain, spinal cord, and stretches below the end of the spinal cord to the sacrum.[1] [2]

21

CSF

CSF moves in a single outward direction from the ventricles, but multidirectionally in the subarachnoid space.

CSF is derived from blood plasma and is largely similar to it, except that CSF is nearly protein-free compared with plasma and has some different electrolyte levels. Due to the way it is produced, CSF has a higher chloride level than plasma, and an equivalent sodium level

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CORPUS CALLOSUM

the hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissureand the fornix, also join the hemispheres and these are also present in other vertebrates. These commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions.