Human develpoment 3rd Exam

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Life Span Development
Chapters 9, 12, 13
updated 2 years ago by Crazy_Horse
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1

The experiment involving newborn goslings, who have an innate tendency to follow the first moving object they see after being hatched, was developed by what developmental researcher?
a) Ainsworth
b) Skinner
c) Bowlby
d) Lorenz

d) Lorenz

2

In Harry Harlow’s experiment with infant monkeys, what was he trying to study?
a) responses of monkeys to other animals in their cages
b) socialization of monkeys
c) if/how attachment is developed in monkeys
d) how infant monkeys are different from human infants

c) if/how attachment is developed in monkeys

3

Harlow's studies of attachment in monkeys showed that:
A) provision of nourishment was the single most important factor motivating attachment.
B) a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response.
C) whether a cloth or wire mother was present mattered less than the presence or absence of other infants.
D) attachment in monkeys is based on imprinting.

B) a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response.

4

12. In Harry Harlow’s experiments, infant monkeys
raised with only wire or cloth “mothers” were
LEAST fearful in strange situations in the
presence of
(A) the “mother” who had provided food
(B) the “mother” who had provided contact
comfort
(C) the “mother” who had provided primary
drive reduction
(D) other young monkeys
(E) their biological mothers

(B) the “mother” who had provided contact
comfort

5

Which developmental researcher conducted experiments with infant monkeys to determine if/how they developed attachments?
a) Harlow
b) Ainsworth
c) Bowlby
d) Erikson

a) Harlow

6

Who was the developmental researcher who produced the earliest work on human attachment?
a) Harlow
b) Bowlby
c) Ainsworth
d) Erikson

b) Bowlby

7

Developmental researcher John Bowlby proposed that all of the following are true EXCEPT
a) the infant bonds with the father as its protector.
b) the infant’s views are based on primary needs for safety and security.
c) the infant is genetically predetermined and motivated to avoid predators.
d) the infant comes to learn that his/her safety is best provided by one person,
who is typically the mother.

a) the infant bonds with the father as its protector.

8

What is the term for a sequence of staged episodes that illustrates the strength of attachment between child and (typically) his/her mother?
a) secure attachment pattern
b) Harlow experiment
c) Ainsworth Strange Situation
d) Bowlby caregiver theory

c) Ainsworth Strange Situation

9

Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development considers
a) how a grown-up can maintain memories from when he/she was an infant that affect life as an adult.
b) how an infant develops trust or mistrust of others.
c) how children develop independence from their parents.
d) how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others’, and their own, behavior(s).

d) how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others’,

10

In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle of geese follows her wherever she goes because she was the first object they saw after they were born. This is an example of:
A) conservation.
B) imprinting.
C) egocentrism.
D) basic trust.

B) imprinting.

11

The Strange Situation was designed by Mary Ainsworth to
A) measure the amount of playful experiences between a child and mother.
B) research brain development.
C) create models for good parenting.
D) research the quality of the relationship between child and caregiver.

D) research the quality of the relationship between child and caregiver.

12

The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. It requires the infant to:

A) crawl through a dark tunnel with his or her mother and a stranger waiting on the other side.

B) move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his or her mother and a stranger.

C) experience loud noises in a room with only a stranger present.

D) choose between his or her mother and his or her father in a strange situation.

B) move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his or her mother and a stranger.

13

What is the term for the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual?
a) parent
b) caregiver
c) attachment
d) reliance

c) attachment

14

When a child demonstrates the kind of attachment where the mother is used as a “home base,” and the child is at ease when she is present, but the child gets upset when
she leaves, and then the child goes to the mother as soon as she returns, this is called
a) Bowlby’s ambivalent pattern.
b) Ainsworth’s safety and security pattern.
c) a secure attachment pattern.
d) a strange situation pattern.

c) a secure attachment pattern.

15

Parker is in the Strange Situation, he shows little interaction with his caregiver. He isn't distressed upon separation and does not reestablish contact upon reunion. He would be classified as being _____.

A. securely attached

B. insecure avoidant

C. insecure resistant

D. insecure disorganized

B. insecure avoidant

16

A child who does not seek proximity to the mother and, after she leaves the room, does not look distressed, is exhibiting a(n)
a) avoidant attachment pattern.
b) secure attachment pattern.
c) Ainsworth Strange Situation.
d) anxious situation pattern.

a) avoidant attachment pattern.

17

Which attachment pattern describes a style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers? They show great
distress when the mother leaves, but upon her return they may simultaneously seek close contact but also hit and kick her.
a) ambivalent attachment pattern
b) avoidant attachment pattern
c) secure attachment pattern
d) disorganized-disoriented attachment pattern

a) ambivalent attachment pattern

18

Children who show the _____________ attachment pattern show inconsistent, contradictory, and confused behavior, such as approaching the mother when she returns
but not looking at her.
a) ambivalent
b) disorganized-disoriented
c) avoidant
d) secure

b) disorganized-disoriented

19

What is the term for the caution and wariness that is displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person?
a) fear
b) suspicion
c) stranger anxiety
d) distress

c) stranger anxiety

20

Baby Polly is usually a calm, happy baby when she is around her parents and siblings. When her parents took her to a family reunion, however, her behavior changed.
Her face crinkled up in a frown and she stared at stranger with suspicion. Baby Polly was
demonstrating an example of
a) distress.
b) nonverbal encoding.
c) stranger anxiety.
d) emotion.

c) stranger anxiety.

21

Separation anxiety begins to occur when a child is 3 years old.

True or False

False

22

Stranger anxiety develops soon after:
A) the concept of conservation.
B) egocentrism.
C) a theory of mind.
D) the concept of object permanence.

D) the concept of object permanence.

23

At approximately what age does a baby begin to demonstrate social referencing?
a) 12 months
b) 6 months
c) 18 months
d) 8 or 9 months

d) 8 or 9 months

24

Baby Lilly is watching her other siblings as she plays in her playpen. Her siblings begin to squabble and shove each other on the floor. Baby Lilly looks to her mother and
notices that her mother is smiling as she watches the other siblings, so Baby Lilly begins to smile, too. This is an example of
a) infant sociability.
b) social referencing.
c) nonverbal encoding.
d) social smile.

b) social referencing.

25

Carolyn tripped on the carpet and fell. When
she got up, she looked at her mother, who was
laughing, and she laughed, too. This is an
example of
(A) empathy
(B) sympathy
(C) social referencing
(D) display rules
(E) semantics

(C) social referencing

26

Social referencing involves:
A) "reading" emotional cues in others.
B) helping infants to interpret ambiguous situations more accurately.
C) becoming more defined in the second year of life.
D) all the above

D) all the above

27

What is the term that refers to the knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and how it affects behavior?
a) learning theory
b) social referencing
c) theory of mind
d) self-awareness

c) theory of mind

28

What factor is NOT involved in the emergence of the theory of mind?
a) increased reading ability
b) brain maturation
c) increase myelination of the frontal lobes of the brain
d) hormonal changes

a) increased reading ability

29

The ____________ demonstrates the limits to a three-year-old child’s theory of
mind.
a) learning theory
b) social referencing
c) false belief task
d) self-awareness concept

c) false belief task

30

The ability to genuinely experience the emotions of others, known as ________, develops
in middle childhood.
a) empathy
b) self-regulation
c) sympathy
d) social awareness

a) empathy

31

The second phase of childhood, called middle childhood, lasts between the ages of:
a) 2 and 3.
b) 4 and 6.
c) 6 and 11.
d)11 and 13.

c) 6 and 11.

32

Girls’ higher rates of depression in adolescence may reflect gender differences in coping with
a) sex.
b) anger.
c) stress.
d) empathy.

a) sex.

33

In middle childhood…
• Control of emotions grow
• Better understanding of emotions aids in
emotional highs and lows
• Ability to hide emotions increases
• Empathy expands as children become
more adept at genuinely experiencing the
emotions of others

In middle childhood…
• Control of emotions grow
• Better understanding of emotions aids in
emotional highs and lows
• Ability to hide emotions increases
• Empathy expands as children become
more adept at genuinely experiencing the
emotions of others

34

Emotional Development in
Adolescent
Beyond the “storm and stress”
•Emotions tend to be among the most
volatile during early adolescence
•Emotions are more negative and more
extreme than they were in middle childhood
•Emotional response more transient and apt
to be more quickly replaced

Emotional Development in
Adolescent
Beyond the “storm and stress”
•Emotions tend to be among the most
volatile during early adolescence
•Emotions are more negative and more
extreme than they were in middle childhood
•Emotional response more transient and apt
to be more quickly replaced

35

The rate of adolescent suicide in the U.S. has _____ in the last 30 years.
a) doubled
b) tripled
c) quadrupled
d) remained the same

b) tripled

36

What is the role of the amygdala in emotions?

The central experience of emotions.

37

The __________, located in the brain’s temporal lobes, is central to the experience of emotions and provides a link between the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus
and a later memory of that stimulus.
a) hippocampus
b) amygdala
c) prefrontal cortex
d) lateral cortex

b) amygdala

38

Trying to think differently about a situation you’ve encountered to make it feel less
troubling is a strategy used in
a) emotional preservation.
b) behavioral self-examination.
c) reverse psychology.
d) emotional self-regulation.

d) emotional self-regulation.

39

Why do adolescent boys succeed in committing suicide more often than adolescent
girls?
a) Boys attempt suicide more frequently than girls.
b) Boys encounter more serious episodes of major depression than girls.
c) Boys experience more social stigma for attempting suicide than girls.
d) Boys tend to use more violent means, like guns, to attempt suicide.

b) Boys encounter more serious episodes of major depression than girls.

40

Adolescent boys report experiencing depression at approximately the same level as girls.

True or False

Answer: False

41

What are the 5 top concerns reported by individuals calling a helpline?

  1. Drugs and alcohol
  2. Just talk
  3. Self esteem
  4. Peer relationships
  5. Family problems
42

What are the steps someone can take to help prevent suicide?

  1. talk to person
  2. Talk specifically about suicidal thoughts
  3. Try to distinguish between general upset and more
    serious danger
  4. Be supportive
  5. Take charge of finding help
  6. Make the environment safe
  7. Do not keep suicide talk secret
  8. Do not challenge, dare, or use verbal shock treatment
  9. Make a contract with the person
  10. Do not be overly reassured by a sudden improvement
    of mood
43

People with a high subjective well-being do not experience which of the following?

a. Many positive emotions
b. Many negative emotions
c. A tendency to be involved in interesting activities
d. Satisfaction with their lives

b. Many negative emotions

44

Sense of subjective well-being or
general happiness remains stable over life
span.

Most people have a general “set point”
for happiness

Sense of subjective well-being or
general happiness remains stable over life
span.
Most people have a general “set point
for happiness

45

Happiest memories = psychological
needs rather than material needs satisfied
Unhappiest memories = basic
psychological needs left unfulfilled

Happiest memories = psychological
needs rather than material needs satisfied
Unhappiest memories = basic
psychological needs left unfulfilled

46

Neither disengagement theory nor activity theory provides a complete picture of
successful aging.

True or False

Answer: True

47

_______________ theory suggests that happiness in late adulthood involves a gradual
withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels.
a) Stability
b) Independence
c) Disengagement
d) Self-fulfillment

c) Disengagement

48

Final Happiness Correlates

Physical and mental health

Financial security

Sense of autonomy,independence, and personal control over one's life

Final Happiness Correlates

Physical and mental health

Financial security

Sense of autonomy,independence, and personal control over one's life

49

Personalities

the sum of total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another.

Personalities

the sum of total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another.

50

When discussing the dimensions of temperament, what is the term used to refer to
the overall amount of movement demonstrated by a child?
a) rhythmicity
b) intensity of reaction
c) distractibility
d) activity level

d) activity level

51

Baby Manuel fusses a great deal and is easily upset. He has a high level of
a) rhythmicity.
b) irritability.
c) difficulty.
d) adaptability.

b) irritability.

52

When discussing the dimensions of temperament, what is the term used to refer to
the overall amount of movement demonstrated by a child?
a) rhythmicity
b) intensity of reaction
c) distractibility
d) activity level

d) activity level

53

All of the following are dimensions of temperament in babies EXCEPT
a) how well attached the baby is to its mother.
b) the baby’s activity level.
c) the quality of the baby’s mood (ex. pleasant or irritable).
d) the child’s level of irritability.

a) how well attached the baby is to its mother.

54

What is the term that Thomas and Chess used for babies who are inactive, showing
relatively calm reactions to their environment, with moods that are generally negative?
They withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly.
a) difficult babies
b) distractible babies
c) slow-to-warm babies
d) limited-response babies

c) slow-to-warm babies

55

What is the term that Thomas and Chess used to describe babies who have a
positive disposition, whose body functions operate regularly, and who are adaptable?
a) difficult babies
b) easy babies
c) slow-to-warm babies
d) low intensity babies

b) easy babies

56

What is the term that Thomas and Chess used to describe babies who have negative
moods and are slow to adapt to new situations? When confronted with a new situation,
they tend to withdraw.
a) slow-to-warm babies
b) easy babies
c) difficult babies
d) low intensity babies

c) difficult babies

57

According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in
the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be
“difficult babies”?
a) 20%
b) 10%
c) 30%
d) 5%

b) 10%

58

According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in
the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be “easy
babies”?
a) 40%
b) 50%
c) 25%
d) 35%

a) 40%

59

According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be “slowto-
warm babies”?
a) 10%
b) 25%
c) 15%
d) 5%

c) 15%

60

According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be “inconsistently categorized babies”?
a) 10%
b) 35%
c) 15%
d) 5%

b) 35%

61

Quality of mood

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses
b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near
c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food
d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.
e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule
f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food

62

Distractibility

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses
b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near
c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food
d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.
e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule
f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.

63

Threshold of responsiveness

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses
b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near
c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food
d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.
e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule
f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

64

Rhythmicity

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses
b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near
c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food
d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.
e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule
f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule

65

Approach-withdrawal

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses
b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near
c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food
d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.
e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule
f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near

66

Activity Level

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses
b) Approach orientation: accepts novel food and toys easily//Withdrawal orientation: cries when a stranger comes near
c) Negative: cries when carriage is rocked//Positive: smiles or smacks lips when tasting new food
d) Low: continues crying even after diaper is change//High: stops fussing when held and rocked.
e) E) Regular: has constant feeding schedule //Irregular: has varying sleep and waking schedule
f) High: not startle by sudden noise or bright lights //Low: pauses sucking on bottle at approach of parent or slight noise.

a) High: wriggles while in diaper//Low: lies still while being dresses

67

Eriksons Stages

Initiative v Guilt

a. infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping
b. 1-3 toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking
c. 3-6 preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play
d. 6-11 schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighborhood / achievement and accomplishment

c. 3-6 preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play

68

Eriksons Stages

Industry v Inferiority

a. infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping
b. 1-3 toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking
c. 3-6 preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play
d. 6-11 schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighborhood / achievement and accomplishment

d. 6-11 schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighborhood / achievement and accomplishment

69

Eriksons Stages

Autonomy v Shame

a. infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping
b. 1-3 toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking
c. 3-6 preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play
d. 6-11 schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighborhood / achievement and accomplishment

b. 1-3 toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking

70

Eriksons Stages

Trust v Mistrust

a. infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping
b. 1-3 toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking
c. 3-6 preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play
d. 6-11 schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighborhood / achievement and accomplishment

a. infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping

71

Eriksons Stages

Intimacy v Isolation

a. 11-22 adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up
b. 22-40 young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life
c. 40-65 mid-adult / children, community / 'giving back', helping, contributing
d. 65+ late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievement

b. 22-40 young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life

72

Eriksons Stages

Integrity v Despair

a. 11-22 adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up
b. 22-40 young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life
c. 40-65 mid-adult / children, community / 'giving back', helping, contributing
d. 65+ late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievement

d. 65+ late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievement

73

Eriksons Stages

Generativity v Stagnation

a. 11-22 adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up
b. 22-40 young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life
c. 40-65 mid-adult / children, community / 'giving back', helping, contributing
d. 65+ late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievement

c. 40-65 mid-adult / children, community / 'giving back', helping, contributing

74

Eriksons Stages

Identity v Role Confusion

a. 11-22 adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up
b. 22-40 young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life
c. 40-65 mid-adult / children, community / 'giving back', helping, contributing
d. 65+ late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievement

b. 22-40 young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life

75

Erik Erikson characterized midlife as a period of
a) ego-integrity-versus-despair.
b) generativity-versus-stagnation.
c) rigidity.
d) identify crisis.

b) generativity-versus-stagnation.

76

According to Levinson, ___________ is the period of assessment that middle-aged people 40–45 go through that may lead to a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite.
a) midlife crisis
b) midlife transition
c) the generativity-versus-stagnation stage
d) the normative-crisis model

a) midlife crisis

77

Most research has not found support for Levinson’s theory that adults in their forties experience a ______________, a stage of uncertainty and indecision as they realize that
their time on earth is finite.
a) course correction
b) reality check
c) midlife crisis
d) countdown period

c) midlife crisis

78

Midlife Crisis
Stage of uncertainty and indecision brought
about by realization that life is finite
• Gender differences
• Despite widespread acceptance, evidence for
midlife crisis does not exist
– For majority of people, transition is smooth and
rewarding
– Many middle-aged people find their careers have
blossomed
– They feel younger than they actually are

Midlife Crisis
Stage of uncertainty and indecision brought
about by realization that life is finite
• Gender differences
• Despite widespread acceptance, evidence for
midlife crisis does not exist
– For majority of people, transition is smooth and
rewarding
– Many middle-aged people find their careers have
blossomed
– They feel younger than they actually are

79

•Five broad trait factors (OCEAN or CANOE) that
describe basic personality
– O = openness
– C = conscientiousness
– E = Extraversion
– A = agreeableness
– N = neuroticism

•Five broad trait factors (OCEAN or CANOE) that
describe basic personality
– O = openness
– C = conscientiousness
– E = Extraversion
– A = agreeableness
– N = neuroticism

80

What is the term that relates to one’s sense of being male or female?
a) social perceptions
b) gender
c) sex
d) gender roles

b) gender

81

Research suggests that by ___ years of age, boys behave more independently and
less compliantly than girls.
a) 5
b) 6
c) 2
d) 3

c) 2

82

Sex=

typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior

83

Gender, the sense of being male or female, is well established by the time children
are
a) adolescent age.
b) around 8-years-old.
c) infants.
d) preschool age.

d) preschool age.

84

What is the term for the perception of oneself as male or female?
a) sexual identity
b) individualistic orientation
c) gender schema
d) gender identity

d) gender identity

85

Gender stability:

begins around 3 or 4 years of age
• the realization that gender is stable over time

86

Gender constancy:

begins around 5 to 7 years of age
•the realization that gender is invariant in spite of
superficial changes in appearance or activities
Then, children look for same-sex models and information
on how to behave according to gender

87

Some biologically oriented developmentalists, using ______________ theory, believe
that gender roles developed because forceful males and nurturing females were more
likely to find partners, have offspring, and pass on these traits to their babies.
a) developmental
b) evolutionary
c) creationist
d) anthropological

b) evolutionary

88

At approximately what age do boys and girls understand the concept of gender constancy?
a) 4 or 5 years of age
b) 3 years of age
c) 8 years of age
d) 2 years of age

a) 4 or 5 years of age

89

By age 1
– Able to distinguish between males and females
– Girls prefer to play with dolls or stuffed animals, while
boys seek out blocks and trucks

By age 1
– Able to distinguish between males and females
– Girls prefer to play with dolls or stuffed animals, while
boys seek out blocks and trucks

90

May be reinforced by parental choices or by hormonal levels
• Expectations about gender-appropriate behavior are even
more gender-stereotyped than those of adults and may be
less flexible during the preschool years than at any other
point in the life span

May be reinforced by parental choices or by hormonal levels
• Expectations about gender-appropriate behavior are even
more gender-stereotyped than those of adults and may be
less flexible during the preschool years than at any other
point in the life span

91

All cultures prescribe gender roles for males and females

These roles differ greatly between cultures

Considerable amount of disagreement over extent and causes of gender differences

Differences between male and female infants, are generally minor

All cultures prescribe gender roles for males and females

These roles differ greatly between cultures

Considerable amount of disagreement over extent and causes of gender differences

Differences between male and female infants, are generally minor

92

Research indicates that when girls are exposed to unusually high levels of________ prenatally, they are more likely to display stereotypical male behaviors.
a) testosterone
b) estrogen
c) androgens
d) toxins

c) androgens

93

One possible biological explanation of gender differences is that the bundle of nerves that connects the hemispheres of the brain, called the ______________, is proportionally
larger in females than in males.
a) corpus callosum
b) myelin cord
c) cerebral cortex
d) neuronal knot

a) corpus callosum

94

Parents frequently assign different chores to boys and girls.
– Boys: tasks performed outside the home that involve tools and
machines
– Girls: tasks inside the home, particularly helping to care for younger
siblings

Parents frequently assign different chores to boys and girls.
– Boys: tasks performed outside the home that involve tools and
machines
– Girls: tasks inside the home, particularly helping to care for younger
siblings

95

Conversations between parents and children
– Parents often convey messages about gender through genderessentialist
statements.
– Parents more likely to offer explanations to boys about what they
were observing than they were to girls.
– Fathers used more instructional talk with sons than with daughter.
– Parents and other adults are more likely to comment on girls’ physical
appearance and attire than on boys’.

Conversations between parents and children
– Parents often convey messages about gender through genderessentialist
statements.
– Parents more likely to offer explanations to boys about what they
were observing than they were to girls.
– Fathers used more instructional talk with sons than with daughter.
– Parents and other adults are more likely to comment on girls’ physical
appearance and attire than on boys’.

96

biological perspecitive

Because gender relate to the sense of becoming male or female and sex refers to the physical characteristics that differentiate males and females.

97

Social learning

see children as learning gender related behavior and expectations by observing others/

98

According to ______________ approaches to gender development, boys and girls acquire their understanding of gender expectations and behavior by watching others, including neighbors, friends, and characters in books and other media.
a) cognitive
b) psychoanalytic
c) social learning
d) biological

c) social learning

99

Cognitive

in the view of some theorist , one aspect of the desire to form a clear sense of identity.

100

Early Maturation

Males
• More successful at athletics, more
popular; higher self esteem
• More likely to have school
difficulties, experience
delinquency, abuse substances

Early Maturation

Males
• More successful at athletics, more
popular; higher self esteem
• More likely to have school
difficulties, experience
delinquency, abuse substances

101

Early Maturation

Females
• Uncomfortable with body; some
ridiculed by peers
• Not always mature enough for
serious dating

Early Maturation

Females
• Uncomfortable with body; some
ridiculed by peers
• Not always mature enough for
serious dating

102

Late Maturation

Males
• Tend to be viewed as less attractive;
social life may be affected; lower selfesteem

• As adults may possess assertiveness
and insightfulness; more creatively
playful

Late Maturation

Males
• Tend to be viewed as less attractive;
social life may be affected; lower selfesteem

• As adults may possess assertiveness
and insightfulness; more creatively
playful

103

Late Maturation

•Overlooked in dating; low social status
• By 10th grade body acceptance higher
than early maturers and more likely to
fit “thin is best” standard

Late Maturation

•Overlooked in dating; low social status
• By 10th grade body acceptance higher
than early maturers and more likely to
fit “thin is best” standard

104

Which of the following is the LEAST likely to have difficulty adjusting to late maturation?
a) tenth grade late-maturing girls
b) late-maturing boys who are shorter and weigh less than their peers
c) late-maturing boys who are shorter and weigh less than their peers but have
qualities such as assertiveness, insightfulness, creativity
d) eighth grade early-maturing girls

a) tenth grade late-maturing girls

105

The noticeable bodily changes that accompany puberty are more often a source of______________ for teenage girls than for teenage boys.
a) pride
b) embarrassment
c) fear
d) happiness

b) embarrassment

106

The term masturbation refers to
a) sexual self-stimulation.
b) abstinence from sexual stimulation.
c) changes in sexual organs due to puberty.
d) changes in sexual thoughts due to puberty.

a) sexual self-stimulation.

107

Masturbation
–Typically first type of sex
– Gender and subculture differences
– Continued for majority of people after marriage
– Viewed as normal/harmless by experts on sexual behavior

Masturbation
–Typically first type of sex
– Gender and subculture differences
– Continued for majority of people after marriage
– Viewed as normal/harmless by experts on sexual behavior

108

Sexual intercourse
–1 in 5 teens have had sex before the age of 15
–80% have had sex before the age of 20
–Numbers postponing sex is rising

Sexual intercourse
–1 in 5 teens have had sex before the age of 15
–80% have had sex before the age of 20
–Numbers postponing sex is rising

109

United States?
a) reduced socioeconomic disparities among minority groups
b) decrease in the age of marriage
c) the growing popularity of virginity pledges
d) the increased use of condoms and other forms of contraception

d) the increased use of condoms and other forms of contraception

110

The component of love that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex,
physical closeness, and romance is called
a) companionate love.
b) the intimacy component.
c) passionate (or romantic) love.
d) the passion component.

d) the passion component.

111

According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the components of love include all of
the following EXCEPT a(n)
a) passion component that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance.
b) intimacy component that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness.
c) companionate love in which strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.
d) decision/commitment component that embodies both the initial recognition that one loves another, as well as the long-term determination to maintain that love.

c) companionate love in which strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.

112

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people have a “fling” or short-term relationship based only on sexual attraction, this is called
a) nonlove.
b) infatuated love.
c) liking.
d) empty love.

b) infatuated love.

113

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are living in an arranged
marriage or a couple has decided to stay together “for the sake of the children,” this is
called
a) nonlove.
b) fatuous love.
c) liking.
d) empty love.

d) empty love.

114

According to Robert Sternberg, infatuated love develops when only _________ is
present.
a) passion
b) intimacy
c) loyalty
d) similarity

a) passion

115

According to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is
present.
a) intimacy
b) decision/commitment
c) loyalty
d) similarity

b) decision/commitment

116

Jerome and Alice have been married for 15 years, and their marriage is strained with bickering and unhappiness. Still, they are not considering a divorce because they
have an 8-year-old son whom they both love deeply. Psychologist Robert Sternberg
would call their relationship
a) companionate love.
b) empty love.
c) fatuous love.
d) nonlove.

b) empty love.

117

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are happily dating one another but not making future plans, this is called
a) romantic love.
b) fatuous love.
c) companionate love.
d) infatuated love.

a) romantic love.

118

The tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion is referred to as which of the following?
a) marriage gradient
b) homogamy
c) cross-cultural factor
d) gender replication

b) homogamy

119

More women than men regard cohabitation as
a) a test of the relationship.
b) an alternative to marriage.
c) a way to enjoy regular sex.
d) a step toward marriage.

d) a step toward marriage.

120

What Makes Marriage Work?
Successful married partners:
• Show affection
• Communicate relatively little negativity
• Perceive themselves as interdependent
• Experience social homogamy, similarity in
leisure activity. and role preferences
• Hold similar interest
• Agree on distribution of roles

What Makes Marriage Work?
Successful married partners:
• Show affection
• Communicate relatively little negativity
• Perceive themselves as interdependent
• Experience social homogamy, similarity in
leisure activity. and role preferences
• Hold similar interest
• Agree on distribution of roles

121

Which of the following is one of these reasons that the midlife divorce rate has been
rising?
a) U.S. books and movies romanticizing the divorce experience
b) divorce increasingly viewed as a chance to enhance personal happiness
c) negative impact of children on marital satisfaction
d) increase of romantic love over

b) divorce increasingly viewed as a chance to enhance personal happiness

122

Jorge has been taught to marry a woman who is younger, smaller, and lower in status. This is referred to as the
a) marriage gradient.
b) social norm.
c) social mores.
d) societal bias.

a) marriage gradient.

123

Theory of Mind
•Related to
– Brain maturation
– Hormonal changes
– Developing language
– Opportunities for social interaction and pretend play
– Cultural background
•Contribute to
– increasingly see the world from others' perspectives understand
that others have emotions
– imagine something that is not physically present pretend that
something has happened and react as if it really had occurred

Theory of Mind
•Related to
– Brain maturation
– Hormonal changes
– Developing language
– Opportunities for social interaction and pretend play
– Cultural background
•Contribute to
– increasingly see the world from others' perspectives understand
that others have emotions
– imagine something that is not physically present pretend that
something has happened and react as if it really had occurred

124

Reference groups
•a group of people with whom one compares
oneself.
•present a set of norms or standards, against which
adolescents judge their social success

Reference groups
•a group of people with whom one compares
oneself.
•present a set of norms or standards, against which
adolescents judge their social success

125

Groups of people with whom one compares oneself are called
a) associates.
b) cohorts.
c) reference groups.
d) social reference.

c) reference groups.

126

Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called
a) peers.
b) cliques.
c) reference groups.
d) cohorts.

b) cliques.

127

Larger groups that are composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another are called
a) cliques.
b) crowds.
c) peers.
d) cohorts.

b) crowds.

128

Race Segregation: The Great Divide of
Adolescence
•Adolescents of different ethnicities and
races interact very little
•Decline begins in elementary school

Race Segregation: The Great Divide of
Adolescence
•Adolescents of different ethnicities and
races interact very little
•Decline begins in elementary school

129

A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and worldviews is known as
a) autonomy.
b) maturity.
c) conscience.
d) generation gap.

d) generation gap.

130

______________ adolescents are liked by some of their peers and disliked by others.
a) Controversial
b) Conflicted
c) Neglected
d) Deferential

a) Controversial

131

Popular adolescents generally possess __________, which would make them good diplomats.
a) controversial opinions
b) a sense of determination
c) high emotional intelligence
d) ambitions for the future

c) high emotional intelligence

132

Benjamin sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. He does not have any best friends, but he is not disliked by his classmates. Which of the following is Benjamin's probable peer status?

A. Popular

B. Neglected

C. Rejected

D. Controversial

B. Neglected

133

Most of Blanca's classmates call her a "bully", and many say that they "don't like her at all". Very few children consider her to be a friend. Which of the following is Blanca's probable peer status?

A. Popular

B. Neglected

C. Rejected

D. Controversial

C. Rejected

134

_____ children give out reinforcements, listen carefully, maintain open lines of communication with peers, are happy, control their negative emotions, act like themselves, show enthusiasm and concern for others, and are self-confident without being conceited.

A. Rejected

B. Controversial

C. Average

D. Popular

D. Popular

135

_____ children are frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and as being disliked.

A. Controversial

B. Average

C. Neglected

D. Rejected

A. Controversial

136

Friendship in Adulthood
• Maintaining friendships is an important part of adult life,
filling a basic need for belongingness.
• How do people become our friends?
• Proximity – live nearby, work with us.
• Similarity – hold similar attitudes and values.
• Most adults have same-race friends.
• We also choose friends based on personal qualities.
• Keep confidences
• Loyal
• Warm
• Affectionate
• Supportive
• Good sense of humor

Friendship in Adulthood
• Maintaining friendships is an important part of adult life,
filling a basic need for belongingness.
• How do people become our friends?
• Proximity – live nearby, work with us.
• Similarity – hold similar attitudes and values.
• Most adults have same-race friends.
• We also choose friends based on personal qualities.
• Keep confidences
• Loyal
• Warm
• Affectionate
• Supportive
• Good sense of humor

137

Recent research suggests that:

A. cohabiting before marriage increases marital satisfaction.

B. cohabiting before marriage increases the likelihood of divorce.

C. cohabiting couples have less difficulty owning property jointly.

D. cohabiting couples face less disapproval from parents and other family members.

B. cohabiting before marriage increases the likelihood of divorce.

138

Which of the following is true of divorce or remarriage in older adults?

A. Women are more likely than men to remarry, thus removing themselves from the pool of divorced older adults.

B. Rising divorce rates, increased longevity, and better health have led to an increase in remarriage by older adults.

C. The majority of divorced older adults are men, due to their greater longevity.

D. Divorce is far less common among younger adults than older adults

B. Rising divorce rates, increased longevity, and better health have led to an increase in remarriage by older adults.

139

Immediately after a divorce, both children and parents may show several types of
psychological maladjustment for a period that may last from
a) 1 to 2 years.
b) 3 months to 3 years.
c) 6 months to 2 years.
d) 1 to 3 years.

c) 6 months to 2 years.

140

Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT
a) sleep disturbance.
b) depression.
c) ADD/ADHD.
d) anxiety.

c) ADD/ADHD

141

After a divorce, children tend to feel pressured to choose sides between the mother and father, and may experience a degree of divided loyalty by the age of ____ years.
a) 5 to 6
b) 10
c) 4
d) 6 to 8

b) 10

142

With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT
a) twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families.
b) 18 months to 2 years after the divorce, most children begin to return to their predivorce state of psychological adjustment.
c) people who have experienced parental divorce are more at risk for experiencing divorce themselves.
d) most children of divorce who choose sides after the divorce never regain relationships with the both parents.

d) most children of divorce who choose sides after the divorce never regain relationships with the both parents.

143

What percentage of children in the U.S. live in “blended families”?
a) 17%
b) 25%
c) 50%
d) 10%

a) 17%

144

By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a
a) multigenerational family.
b) single-parent family.
c) blended family.
d) mixed family

c) blended family

145

Children living in blended families may be uncertain about their responsibilities and how to behave toward stepparents and step siblings. This is known as
a) autonomy.
b) role ambiguity.
c) shared benefits.
d) self-care.

b) role ambiguity.

146

True or False

Adolescents are able to adjust better to living in a blended family than school-age children.

Answer: False

147

Close to ___________ of families with children are headed by single parents.
a) one-tenth
b) one-quarter
c) one-third
d) one-half

c) one-third

148

Family: The Connection of Generations
• Connections with siblings, children, grandchildren,
and even great-grandchildren continue and may
provide an important source of comfort to adults in
the last years of their lives
• Siblings provide strong emotional support during
late adulthood
• Child-parent bond sometimes asymmetrical as
parents have greater developmental stake in close
tie

Family: The Connection of Generations
• Connections with siblings, children, grandchildren,
and even great-grandchildren continue and may
provide an important source of comfort to adults in
the last years of their lives
• Siblings provide strong emotional support during
late adulthood
• Child-parent bond sometimes asymmetrical as
parents have greater developmental stake in close
tie

149

True or False

Census data reveals that the multigenerational household, which includes three or more generations, is the fastest-growing household arrangement in the U.S. and has
increased more than a third between 1990 and 2000.

Answer: True

150

Which of the following statements about the empty nest syndrome is true?
a) The departure of the last child often leads to major bouts of depression.
b) Fathers experience deeper regrets about their departed children than
mothers.
c) There are few positive effects of the departure of children.
d) Feelings of sadness and distress are temporary and mild.

d) Feelings of sadness and distress are temporary and mild.

151

Which term below refers to the experience that relates to parents’ feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their children’s departure
from home?
a) midlife crisis
b) normative crisis models
c) empty nest syndrome
d) life events models

c) empty nest syndrome

152

The term helicopter parents refers to parents who
a) constantly intervene in their children’s lives.
b) seek to escape any involvement with their grown children.
c) only occasionally become involved in their children’s lives.
d) refuse to let their children leave home or have a career.

a) constantly intervene in their children’s lives.

153

Karen, aged 21, is a senior in college but her mother calls her five or six times a day to "check in" and to ask Karen what she is doing, what she had for lunch, and so on. This type of parenting has been called _____ parenting.

A. pathological

B. helicopter

C. boomerang

D. indulgent

B. helicopter

154

Which of the following is NOT a reason why boomerang children return home to
live with middle-aged parents?
a) breakup of a marriage
b) economic reasons
c) lack of employment or underemployment
d) middle-age parents miss their children

d) middle-age parents miss their children

155

Identify the term that is applied to young adults who return to their parents' homes to live.

Boomerang kids/Back-to-bedroom

156

Juanita is feeling stressed today because her children need help with their homework while her elderly parents need someone to take them grocery shopping.
Juanita is a member of the
a) empty nest generation.
b) sandwich generation.
c) midlife crisis generation.
d) normative crisis generation.

b) sandwich generation.

157

Middle adulthood is referred to as the sandwich generation because:
A. life is very hectic and families rarely have a full meal together.

B. people expect middle-aged adults to be both wise and mature as well as young and energetic.

C. middle-aged adults are caught in a conflict between caring more for their spouse's parents than their own.

D. middle-aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their elderly parents.

D. middle-aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their elderly parents.

158

True or False

Continuers use part-time or volunteer work to remain at least partially active in their pre-retirement work.

Answer: True

159

Which of Schlossberg’s identified six basic paths of retirement describes those who use retirement as a time to explore entirely new pursuits?
a) easy gliders
b) adventurers
c) continuers
d) distancers

b) adventurers

160

Don’t fret about retirement much and take each day as it comes.

a) Involved Spectators
b) Searchers
c) easy gliders
d) Retreaters

c) easy gliders

161

Take more than of a back-seat role in staying connected with their previous field.

a) Involved Spectators
b) Searchers
c) easy gliders
d) Retreaters

a) Involved Spectators

162

Are tying different activities in search of a suitable way to spend their retirement.

a) Involved Spectators
b) Searchers
c) easy gliders
d) Retreaters

b) Searchers

163

Becomes depressed and with drawn and stop searching for a meaningful pathway through retirement.

a) Involved Spectators
b) Searchers
c) easy gliders
d) Retreaters

d) Retreaters

164

Which of the following is a risk for children raised in poverty?
a) poor academic performance
b) helicopter parenting
c) greater number of employment opportunities
d) increased influence of media

a) poor academic performance

165

Women age 65 and over are almost twice as likely to __________ than men of the same
age.
a) seek divorce
b) live in poverty
c) enjoy retirement
d) take a new job

b) live in poverty

166

What percent of people age 65 and older live in poverty?
a) 5%
b) 10%
c) 15%
d) 20%

b) 10%

167

What percent of elderly women living alone are on an income below the poverty
line?
a) 10%
b) 15%
c) 20%
d) 25%

d) 25%

168

Approximately what percent of divorced black women between 65 and 74 years of age live below the poverty level?
a) 8%
b) 20%
c) 50%
d) 75%

c) 50%

169

What statement is true regarding financial issues in late adulthood?
a) Social inequities that various socioeconomic groups experience during their earlier lives become magnified with increasing age.
b) Social inequities seem to level out in late adulthood.
c) People who spend money early in their lives adopt a meager spending style.
d) Cost of living does not have a profound effect in late adulthood.

a) Social inequities that various socioeconomic groups experience during their earlier lives become magnified with increasing age.