pathology - respiratory
where in your brain controls your breathing rate
The bronchioles constrict, reducing the size of the airways.
The lungs become stiff and less elastic, which increases the work of the respiratory muscles.
The airways become inflamed and narrower, which restricts the flow of air and increases the work of the respiratory muscles
Air in the chest cavity equalizes the pressure in the chest cavity with the outside air and causes the lungs to collapse. This is usually caused by trauma or injury.
Tall, thin females in early 20s sometimes get pneumothorax spontaneously
Breathing slows or stops under a variety of conditions.
Fluid between the alveolus and pulmonary capillary builds up, which increases the distance over which gases must exchange and slows down the exchange.
Smoke particles coat the alveoli and prevent the exchange of gases.
Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin more tightly than either oxygen or carbon dioxide, which minimizes the delivery of oxygen to all the tissues of the body Carbon monoxide is a common product of poorly vented heaters and of automobile exhausts.
carbon monoxide poisoning
COPD includes which diseases
emphysema, chronic bronchitis, in some cases asthma
oThe airways and air sacs lose their elastic quality.
oThe walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed.
oThe walls of the airways become thick and inflamed.
oThe airways make more mucus than usual, which can clog them.
at what pulse ox is supplemental oxygen suggested
88% or lower
If supplemental oxygen is available for COPD patient in hospital should/could you use it when walking him?
Yes studies show that individuals with COPD hae less fatigue if they exercise with oxygen
Use at the lowest setting possible
If they use it at rest then turn up a little if this is permitted
As ppl get older changes occur in the respiratory system: Lowered defense against infection, stiffer chest wall and so don’t inhale as deeply so mild impairment in gas exchange, decline in elastic recoil and reduction in surface area of alveoli.
Do these cahnges impair exercise capacity in the elderly?
What is chronic bronchitis?
productive cough lasting at least three months per year for two consecutive years
In which condition would you hear no breathe sounds over one side of the chest in at least one area?