normal glomerular filtration rate
what are we thinking if there is sediment in the urine
large output of urine
could be diabetes, nerves, diuretics
what is oliguria?
what is anuria?
small urine output 100-400 cc/day
failure of kidneys to produce urine less than 100cc/day
range of values for normal urine pH
when do we see ketones in the urine?
when the body cannot breakdown sugar for energy so we start using fat
seen in starvation, diabetics, and high fat diets, sometimes hyperthyroid
what does bilirubin in the urine indicate
hepatitis, blood disease, obstruction of bile ducts in liver
WHAT IS CYSTOCELE
what is rectocele
What vertebral levels do the kidneys span?
T12-L3 – right kidney is lower
what is murphey's sign?
percussion to the back at costovertebral angle elicits pain. Positive in patients with kidney infections or stone. Kidneys are at T12-L2
who is most likely to develop a kidney stone?
a 30 to 60 year old man that lives in an industrialized country that is hot and humid. – could be a hydration issue.
at what level of creatinine might you be concerned
above 1.3mg/L is out of the range of normal
range from BUN
What are the effects of chronic renal failure on the Integumentary system
pallor, ecchymosis, pruritus, dry skin/mucous membranes, thin/brittle nails
What are the effects of chronic renal failure on the Musculoskeletal systems
demineralization of bones; anemia. osteomalacia (softening of the bones), osteoporosis, and soft tissue calcification. spontaneous tendon ruptures more common.
- Are there dietary restrictions for individuals in renal failure? What are they and why limit these things?
- no alcohol, caffeine. limit salt, protein, phosphorus, potassium, and other electrolytes. these things are difficult for the kidneys to filter.
what diseases are inflammatory glomerular lesions associated with
diabetes and lupus
a young male cyclist comes in and says he has had changes in urination - painful, burning, dribbling, cloudy. he has also had multiple sex partners (hx of STI) why?
what is orchitis?
inflammation of the testes - caused by bacteria, mumps, or STIs
What is and causes epidiymitis?
inflammation of the tubes that carry sperm caused by UTIs or STIs.
List musculoskeletal changes that occur with menopause and give a brief explanation why.
Decreased muscle massDecreased inflammatory response Estrogen may have a place in inflammation and repair; decreased estrogen is associated with a decrease in type I collagen and decrease in muscle massThese factors may explain increased pain and dysfunction with fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, and adhesive capsulitis.