Skull & Face Quiz #7

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1

What are the two parts that form the skull?

the neurocranium and the facial skeleton

2

What provides the case for the brain, CNs, blood vessels and meninges?

The neurocranium

3

What is the cranium roof?

The calvaria

4

What is the cranium floor?

The cranial base

5

What is the cranial base made up of?

The ethmoid, occipital and temporal bones

6

How many bones is the neurocranium made up of?

8

7

What are the 8 bones of the neurocranium?

1 frontal, 2 temporal, 2, parietal, 1 occipital, 1 ethmoid and 1 sphenoid.

8

Where can you see the ethmoid and the sphenoid?

Inside of the skull.

9

How many bones is the facial skeleton made up of?

14

10

What are the bones of the facial skeleton?

2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 maxillae, 2 zygomatic, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 1 mandible and 1 vomer

11

The orbits for the eyes are the?

The biggest feature on the anterior aspect of skull's frontal bone.

12

Orbits are made up of how many bones?

6

13

What are the 6 bones of the orbits?

frontal, maxilla, zygomatic, lacrimal, sphenoid, ethmoid

14

What is the RIM?

frontal, maxilla and zygomatic bones of the orbits.

15

Which bones of the orbits are palpable?

The RIM. a.k.a frontal, maxilla and zygomatic bones of the orbits.

16

Which bones of the orbits are not palpable because they are inside of the skull?

lacrimal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.

17

What is the function of sutures when we are infants and growing?

The sutures of the brain allow for brain growth and expansion.

18

What happens to sutures?

They eventually fuse.

19

Which suture connects frontal bone with the 2 parietal bones?

Coronal suture.

20

Which suture connects the 2 parietal bones?

Sagittal suture.

21

Which suture connects the parietal to the occipital bone?

Lamboid suture.

22

What is located on top of the parietal bone?

The parietal foramen.

23

What is bregma?

the point or area of the skull where the sagittal and coronal sutures joining the parietal and frontal bones come together.

24

What is lambda?

The occipital angle is rounded and corresponds with the point of meeting of the sagittal and the lambdoid suture—a point which is termed the lambda.

25

Which parts are the "squamous parts'?

the frontal and the occipital bones.

26

Which bone is inferior to the parietal bone?

Temporal bone.

27

What are the features of the temporal bone?

external auditory meatus, internal auditory meatus, mastoid process, styloid process and zygomatic process

28

What is the EAM?

external auditory meatus (ear canal)

29

What is the mastoid process?

Head band area behind ear.

30

What is the styloid process?

Point of the mastoid.

31

Directly posterior to the EAM is the?

Mastoid process.

32

Zygomatic bones are formed by two processes What are they?

zygomatic process of the temporal bone and temporal process of zygomatic bone (tongue twister ;p)

33

Inside the arch:

Greater wing of sphenoid bone and pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone (cant palpate or see it)

34

What is the nasal septum?

Bony wall between two nostrils.

35

Hard palate

Roof of mouth

36

What is the anterior hard palate formed by?

3/4 maxilla

37

What is the posterior hard palate formed by?

1/4 palatine

38

Soft palate

Uvula area

39

Ethmoid bone parts

orbital plate, perpendicular plate, cribiform plate, crista galli

40

Clear liquid coming out of ears?

MEDICAL EMERGENCY. CSF fluid leaking out of ear because the cribiform plate got fractured. Call 911!

41

What do you find at the back of the skull?

External occipital protruberence and superior and inferior nuchal lines.

42

What do you feel when you slide down the external occipital protruberence?

Spinous processes.

43

Superior nuchal line attachments are?

Traps (origin), splenius, semispinalis capitis, longisimus capitis

44

Inferior nuchal line attachments are?

superior obliques, rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor

45

What is the strongest bone of the body?

The mandible (jaw)

46

The mandible is_____ and supported by ______.

thick, surrounding muscles

47

What are the two parts of the mandible?

ramus and body

48

What is the upright part of the mandible?

ramus

49

What is the horizontal part of the mandible?

body

50

What are the two parts of the ramus

coronoid process (anterior) and condylar process (posterior)

51

What are the two parts of the condylar process?

head and neck

52

What is anterior to the neck of the condylar process?

pterygoid fossa

53

Where is the mandibular notch?

between the condylar process in the back and the coronoid process in the front

54

Angle of the mandible?

Easily palpable, where the ramus and the body come together

55

Anterior part of mandible

–Mental protuberance (chin)

–Mental tubercle (butt chin)

56

Oblique line

Not on the bone.

–Separates the body from the alveolar portion (crest) of the mandible (teeth)

57

The mandible will take part in the ______ joint.

TMJ. Temporomandibular joint.

58

Blood supply to the face will be mostly from ____ artery

1

59

The common carotid artery (CCA) splits at

the superior border of the thyroid cartilage

60

The common carotid artery (CCA) splits into

Internal carotid artery (ICA) & External carotid artery (ECA)

61

The ECA gives blood supply to the ____.

Face, (facial and temporal arteries) except the globella (area between eyebrows)

62

The blood flow of globella is supplied by?

ICA

63

The face is very ______ and when you have an injury it ______

vascularized, alot of bleeding, swelling and bruising.

64

The ICA will then head up to the ______ to help form the ______

brain, circle of Willis

65

Gives sensation to the entire the face & innervates the muscles of mastication

Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

66

Muscles of facial expression are innervated by?

Facial nerve (CN VII)

67

Muscles of facial expression insert on?

skin NOT bones

68

What is mastication?

Chewing

69

Sensory innervation of the face

Trigeminal nerve

70

Motor innervation of face

Facial nerve

71

Frontalis

raises eyebrows

72

Corrugator

bring eyebrows together

73

Procerus

wrinkles nose

74

orbicularis oris

closes the mouth

75

zygomaticus

raises corners of mouth, real smile.

76

dilator nares

opens nostrils

77

compressor nares

closes nostrils

78

risorius

fake smile

79

levator labii superioris

raises upper lip

80

levator anguli oris

raises corners of mouth

81

depressor anguli oris

depresses corner of mouth

82

buccinator

compresses cheeks (like when squirting out water).

83

orbicularis oculi

closes eye

84

levator palpebrae superioris

elevates eyelid, not not considered muscle of facial expression

85

What is special/different about the levator palpebrae superioris?

It is not a muscle of facial expression thus not innervated by facial nerve

86

levator palpebrae superioris innervation

oculomotor nerve CNIII

87

Buccinator clinical pearl

compresses cheeks while eating, moves back food into the throat in a healthy person. This becomes an issue when one had a stroke or bell's palsy (facial paralysis) for example because the facial nerve might be compromised thus the muscles of facial expression such as the buccinator might not work right.Food might remain in the vestibular area between cheek and teeth. Person might choke once they lay down. Important to check in our patients with these diagnoses.

88

Bell's palsy

facial droop, half of the face is paralyzed. No known cause but facial nerve is compromised or irritated and symptoms are that the muscles of facial expression do not work properly. Buccinator might not push back food adequately, eye is open might dry out, liquid spills out of mouth.

89

Trigeminal nerve v1, v2, v3?

v1 is opthalamic nerve

v2 is maxillary nerve

v3 is madibular nerve

90

upper extremity affected if what part of the ICA is impacted?

MCA

91

lower extremity affected if what part of the iCA is impacted?

ACA

92

opthalamic nerve

nose, forehead, and top of skull

93

maxillary nerve

lower nose, maxillae, cheeks, temporal bone area

94

mandibular nerve

chin, side of face

95

greater occipital nerve

dorsal rami C2 and 3 and occipial area

96

lesser occipital nerve

ventral ramus c2, behind ear

97

greater auricular nerve

ventral rami c2 and 3, behind ear and mastoid process area a little bit of neck (lateral area)

98

transverse cutaneous nerve of neck

anterior neck, ventral rami c2 and 3

99

posterior neck area innervated by

dorsal rami c3, 4 and 5