Review - SG Final

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1

Chapter 1:
Are bacteria unicellular or multicellular?

unicellular

2

Chapter 1:
Who invented the nomenclature system?

Carolus Linnaeus

3

Chapter 1:
What was Carolus Linnaeus known for?

nomenclature system

4

Chapter 1:
T/F: Bacteria don't have a nucleus

true

5

Chapter 1:
T/F: Bacteria have nuclei.

false

6

Chapter 1:
Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

prokaryotic

7

Chapter 1:
What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?

bacillus, cocci, spiraus

8

Chapter 1:
How do most bacteria divide?

binary fission

9

Chapter 1:
Are Archaea prokaryotic or eurkaryotic

prokaryotic

10

Chapter 1:
T/F: Archaea have peptidoglycan walls

falst

11

Chapter 1:
T/F: Archaea don't have peptidoglycan walls

true

12

Chapter 1:
Most halophiles, thermophiles, and methanogens can be found under which domain?

Archaea

13

Chapter 1:
T/F: Most fungi are multicellular.

true
(yeast is unicellular)

14

Chapter 1:
T/F: Most fungi are unicellular

false

15

Chapter 1:
Are Protozoa eukaryotic or prokaryotic

eukaryotic

16

Chapter 1:
T/F: Algae are photosynthetic organisms.

true

17

Chapter 1:
T/F: Algae are non-photosynthetic.

false

18

Chapter 1:
Are algae unicellular or multicellular

BOTH!!

19

Chapter 1:
Viruses

noncelular entities that are parasites of cells

20

Chapter 1:
Describe the structure of virus

RNA/DNA surrounded by protein coat (sometimes surrounded by envelope)

21

Chapter 1:
Do viruses have RNA or DNA

both

22

Chapter 1:
Who first observed "cells" under a microscope?

Robert Hooke

23

Chapter 1:
What was Robert Hooke's achievement?

viewing "cells" under a microscope via cork

24

Chapter 1:
Who was the first to observe microbes

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

25

Chapter 1:
What was Anton van Leeuwenhoek's accomplishment?

first to observe microbes under a microscope

26

Chapter 1:
Who performed the "meat/fly" experiment?

Francesco Redi

27

Chapter 1:
What did Francesco Redi accomplish?

meat/flies experiment

28

Chapter 1:
Who first introduced the concept of biogenesis?

Rudolf Virchow

29

Chapter 1:
What did Rudolf Virchow accomplish?

introduced the concept of biogenesis

30

Chapter 1:
biogenesis

all living cells can arise only from preexisting cell

31

Chapter 1:
spontaneous generation

all living organisms could arise from nonliving matter

32

Chapter 1:
Louis Pasteur

found out microbes are involved in fermentation

33

Chapter 1:
Who found out that microbes were involved in fermentation?

Louis Pasteur

34

Chapter 1:
Who found that handwashing reduced infections in the hospital

Ignaz Semelweis

35

Chapter 1:
What was Ignaz Semelweis' accomplishment?

handwashing reduced infections in the hospital

36

Chapter 1:
Who applied the Germ theory in medicine by treating surgical wounds with phenol?

Joseph Lister

37

Chapter 1:
What was Joseph Lister's accomplishment

applied Germ theory in medicine
treated surgical wounds with phenol

38

Chapter 1:
What was Richard Koch's accomplishment?

Koch's Postulates

39

Chapter 1:
Who invented the experimental steps to link specific microbes to a specific disease

Richard Koch

40

Chapter 1:
Koch's Postulates

experimental steps to link specific microbes to a specific disease

41

Chapter 1:
Who introduced vaccinations?

Edward Fenner

42

Chapter 1:
What was Edward Fenner's accomplishment?

introducing vaccinations

43

Chapter 1:
Who searched for "something" to kill bacteria?

Paul Ehrlich

44

Chapter 1:
What was Paul Ehrlich's accomplishment?

found "something" to kill bacteria
salvarsan --> treated syphilis

45

Chapter 1:
Who accidently founded penicilin?

Alexander Flemming

46

Chapter 1:
What was Alexander Flemming's accomplishment?

founded penicilin

47

Chapter 2:
Do endergonic reactions require or release energy?

require

48

Chapter 2:
Do exergonic reactions require or release energy?

release

49

Chapter 2:
What dissociates into H+ and anions?

acid

50

Chapter 2:
What dissociates into OH- and cations?

base

51

Chapter 2:
anions

"-" atoms

52

Chapter 2:
cations

"+" atoms

53

Chapter 2:
What dissociates into aniona and cations that are not H+ or OH-

salt

54

Chapter 2:
Which macromolecule consists of carbons with 2:1 ratios of H:O

carbs

55

Chapter 2:
Which macromolecule is insoluble in water

lipids

56

Chapter 2:
simple lipid structure

glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains

57

Chapter 2:
saturated lipid

no double bonds between carbons

58

Chapter 2:
unsaturated lipid

at least one double bond is present between the carbons

59

Chapter 2:
phospholipid structure

glycerol, 2 fatty acids, one phosphate group

60

Chapter 2:
Sterols are what type of macromolecule?

lipids

61

Chapter 2:
nucleotide structure

pentose (deoxyribose/ribose)
phosphate group
nitrogen-containing base

62

Chapter 4:
What is a glycocalyx?

capsule, slime layer, or extracellular polysaccharide made of gelatinous polysaccharides and/or polypeptide covering

63

Chapter 4:
What are axial filaments?

"motile" filaments that wrap around spirals

64

Chapter 4:
What is the main function of fimbriae?

adhere to cell surfaces

65

Chapter 4:
What is the main function of pili?

motility and DNA transfer

66

Chapter 4:
What does peptidoglycan consist of?

NAG and NAM and short chains of amino acids

67

Chapter 4:
What does the outer membrane of gram negative cells consist of?

lipopolysaccharide-lipoprotein-phospholipid outer membrane surrounding a thing polypeptidoglycan

68

Chapter 4:
What are acid-fast stains used for?

cells with mycolic acid cell walls

69

Chapter 4:
How do gram stains work?

crystal violet-iodine complexes can't leave gram + walls

70

Chapter 4:
hypotonic

[in] = low
[out] = high

71

Chapter 4:
hypertonic

[in] = high
[out] = low

72

Chapter 4:
inclusions

reserve deposits found in cells

73

Chapter 4:
Fungal cell walls are made of what?

chitin

74

Chapter 4:
Yeast cell walls are made of what?

glucan and mannan

75

Chapter 4:
What kind of ribosomes do eukaryotes have?

80s

76

Chapter 4:
What kind of ribosomes do prokaryotes have?

70s

77

Chapter 5:
anabolism

chemical reaction which simpler substances are combined to form more complex molecules

78

Chapter 5:
catabolism

chemcial reactions that results in breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances

79

Chapter 5:
Does anabolism release or require energy?

require

80

Chapter 5:
Does catabolism release or require energy?

release

81

Chapter 5:
What does a holoenzyme consist of?

apoenzyme and cofactor

82

Chapter 5:
apoenzyme

protein portion of a holoenzyme

83

Chapter 5:
cofactor

non-protein portion of a holoenzyme

84

Chapter 5:
ribozymes

enzymatic RNA molecules

85

Chapter 5:
oxidation

removal of electrons

86

Chapter 5:
reduction

addition of electrons

87

Chapter 5:
What are the end products of glycolysis (from one glucose)?

2 ATP
2 NADH

88

Chapter 5:
What are other alternatives to glycolysis?

pentose phosphate pathway
Entner-Doudoroff

89

Chapter 5:
What is the starting molecule for Kreb's Cycle?

pyruvic acid

90

Chapter 5:
What are the end products for the Kreb's Cycle from one glucose?

6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP

91

Chapter 5:
How much ATP is made from one cellular respiration for eukaryotes? prokaryotes?

38 ATP
36 ATP

92

Chapter 5:
lipase

hydrolyzes lipids into glycerols and fatty acids

93

Chapter 5:
How are fatty acids broken down?

beta-oxidation

94

Chapter 5:
How are ATP in photosynthesis made?

chemiomosis

95

Chapter 5:
What are the start and end products of the Calvin-Benson cycle?

START: CO2
END: sugars

96

Chapter 5:
Are cyanobacteria oxygenic or anoxygenic phototrophs?

oxygenic

97

Chapter 5:
Are green and purple bacteria oxygenic or anoxygenic phototrophs?

anoxygenic

98

Chapter 5:
photoheterotrophs?

uses light as an energy source and an organic compound for carbon source

99

Chapter 5:
chemoautotrophs

uses inorganic compounds as their energy source and carbon dioxide as their carbon source

100

Chapter 5:
chemoheterotrophs

uses complex organic molecules as their carbon and energy source