The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located__________.
in the walls of the tract organs
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to____________.
collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage.
The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called______.
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called________.
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called______.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ______.
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares and intestinal villi
Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
Which of the following is not true of saliva?
contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins.
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
serous cells and mucous cells.
The solutes contained in saliva include______.
electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA.
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach_______.
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins.
Chyme is created in the __________.
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ______.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought.
Peristaltic waves are _______.
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another.
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ___________.
protein and peptide fragments.
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ______.
chief cells of the stomach.
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the __________.
The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called _______.
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
Parietal cells of the stomach produce_______.
Hepatocytes do not __________.
produce digestive enzymes.
Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
Chief cells ___________.
are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands.
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of _______.
The _______ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the __________.
The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the _______.
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
__________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
Important peritoneal folds do not include the ______.
The lamina propria is composed of ______.
loose connective tissue.
_______ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
The function of the goblet cells is to __________.
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion.
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins.
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by _______.
the vagus nerve and enteric plexus.
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
fungiform and circumvallate.
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It __________.
is longer than the small intestine.
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy.
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
Paneth cells _______.
secrete enzymes that kill bacteria.
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves _____.
cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction.
Select the correct statement about absorption.
If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from _______.
A baby is admitted tot he hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates __________.
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
inferior vena cava.
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ______.
loop of Henle.
Urine passes through the ________.
pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra.
Which of the following is NOT associated with the renal corpuscle?
a vasa recta.
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) _______.
increase in the production of ADH.
The urinary bladder is composed of _______epithelium.
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ______.
by a decrease in the blood pressure.
Which of the choices below is NOT a function of the urinary system?
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat.
Which gland sits atop each kidney?
The ______ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
is drained by an efferent arteriole.
The descending limp of the loop of Henle _______.
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla.
Select the correct statement about the ureters.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position.
The renal corpuscle is made up of _______.
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus.
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for _______.
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure.
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ______.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure).
Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
the stretching of the bladder wall.
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is __________.
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments.
The macula densa cells respond to _______.
changes in solute content of the filtrate.
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of _______.
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibits the release of ADH.
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure.
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is _______.
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
Net filtration would decrease.
Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Tubular reabsorption ______.
by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient.
Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron.
They are extremely complex molecules.
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by _______.
secondary active transport.
Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine.
Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because _______.
the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood.
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ____.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230mg/100ml, the amino acid will __________.
appear in the urine.
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water.
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
by secreting sodium ions.
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the _______.
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption.
Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
ridding the body of bicarbonate ions.
Which statement is correct?
Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys.
Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
angiotensin II and aldosterone.
Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
macula densa cells.
The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
The term hypotonic hydration refers to _______.
a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water.
Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ___________.
Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention.
Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.
a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction.
Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
the lungs and the kidneys.
Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
anabolism of proteins
Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
The fluid link between the external and internal environment is __________.
Newborn infants have a relatively higher ______ content in their ECF than do adults.
Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids.
Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.
The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ______.
potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ______ buffer system.
A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates __________.
The movement of fluids between cellular compartments __________.
is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces.
What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
atrial natriuretic peptide.
Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except _______.
Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ______.
the control of respiratory ventilation.
Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion.
The regulation of sodium ______.
in linked to blood pressure.
Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance.
Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion.
Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is likely diagnosis?
One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is _______.
a rise in plasma osmolality.
Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.
The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ________.
hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood.
Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
amount of body fat.
The regulation of potassium balance _______.
involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium.