psyc-3337 exam 2 ch10

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  • Industry = feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence
  • Inferiority = feelings of failure and inadequacy

from age 6-12


Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive-or Negative-View of the Self

Develops in important ways during middle childhood

  • Children increasingly compare themselves to others
  • Children are developing their own standards
  • For most children self-esteem improves in middle childhood

Self-Concept: see yourself as good or bad at specific task

Example: I am good at softball but I am not good at mathematics.


Kohlberg Stages:Preconventional Morality (stages 1 & 2):

  • people follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishments

Kohlberg Stages:Conventional Morality (stages 3 & 4):

  • people approach problems in terms of their own position as good, responsible members of society

Kohlberg Stages:Postconventional Morality (stages 5 & 6):

  • universal moral principles are invoked and considered broader than a particular society

Gilligan 's Stages of Morality in Girls

(stage1: orientation toward individual survival)

Initial concentration is on what is practical and best for self. Gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others

example: a first grader may insist on paying only games of her own choosing when playing with a friend.


Schoolyard-and Cyber-Yard-Bullies:At school

  • Almost 85 percent of girls and 80 percent of boys report experiencing some form of harassment in school at least once
  • 160,000 U.S. schoolchildren stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied

Schoolyard-and Cyber-Yard-Bullies: The Bully

The bully

  • About 10 to 15 percent of students bully others at one time or another
  • About half of all bullies come from abusive homes
  • Bullies tend to watch more television containing violence, and they misbehave more at home and at school than do nonbullies
  • When their bullying gets them into trouble, they may try to lie their way out of the situation, and they show little remorse for their victimization of others

When Both Parents Work Outside the Home: How Do Children Fare?

In most cases, children fare quite well

When parents:

–Are loving

–Are sensitive to their children's needs

–Provide appropriate substitute care


Poverty and Family Life

Poor families

  • Fewer basic everyday resources
  • More disruptions in children's lives
  • Higher likelihood of stress
  • Issues of safety –more violence
  • At risks for failing out of school
  • Moving often
  • Attend inferior schools

Group Homes…

  • Term “orphanage” replaced by group home or residential treatment center

–Group homes used for youngsters whose parents are no longer able to care for them adequately


what is considered most important friendship during middle childhood?

mutual trust


gifted and talented kids who are smart and do good in school

are rewarded