Urinalysis

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Pmborton
45 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Functions of Urinary System

removes unwanted waste, stabilizes blood volume, acidity, and electrolytes, regulates extracellular fluids of the body, secretes erthropoietin and renin, and regulates absorption of calcium ions by activating vitamin D

2

erythropoietin

controls the rate of red blood cell formation

3

renin

regulates blood pressure

4

Kidneys

reddish brown, bean shaped, 4-5inch long organs located slightly above the waistline in the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity in a retroperitoneal position

5

renal cortex

outer area of the kidney

6

renal medulla

inner region of the kidney

7

renal pelvis

hollow-funnel shaped area of the kidney

8

nephron

functional unit of the kidney; approximately 1 million in each kidney

9

renal tubules

proximal and distal convoluted tubules and nephron loop (loop of Henle)

10

ureters

slender muscular tubes approximately 10-12 inches long; carry urine formed in the kidney to the urinary bladder

11

urinary bladder

a hollow muscular organ that holds the urine until it is expelled

12

micturition

the process of the urinary bladder expelling urine

13

urethra

the tube that carries urine outside the body; 8 inches long in males, 1.5 inches long in females

14

urethral meatus

an external opening from which urine is expelled

15

filtration

fluids and dissolved substances based on size are forced through the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule by hydrostatic pressure, creating a liquid called glomerular filtrate

16

reabsorption

as substances pass through the renal tubules, some cross back into the peritubular capillaries

17

peritubular capillaries

capillaries surrounding the tubules through which reabsorption occurs

18

renal threshold values

blood levels of a substance are too high to allow any more to be reabsorbed

19

160-180 mg/dL

the renal threshold level of glucose

20

secretion

substances are transported from the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubules

21

Flow of Urine through Urinary System

Bloodstream: blood enters the kidney via the renal afferent arterioles -> Glomerulus -> Glomerular (Bowman's) Capsule of Nephron -> Renal Tubules -> Collecting Ducts -> Renal Pelvis -> Ureter -> Urinary Bladder -> Urethra -> Expelled through Urethral Meatus

22

95%

amount of water that makes up urine

23

Nitrogen waste Products of Urine

Urea, uric acid, and ammonia derived from protein breakdown and creatinine waste product of muscle metabolism; chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate

24

1200-1500 mL

daily output of urine after the amount of blood passes into renal arteries

25

Diuresis

increased volume of urine output

26

Anuria

No flow of urine

27

Dysuria

painful urination

28

Nocturia

excessive urination at night

29

Oliguria

decreased urine volume

30

Polyuria

passing abnormally large amounts of urine

31

25-50 mL

volume of urine required for urine specimen collection

32

1 hour

maximum time that should pass before urine is tested

33

random specimen

collect the midstream portion of the urine when voiding; at least 25 mL; first third in toilet, second in container, third in toilet; flushes meatus of bacteria

34

first morining specimen

most concentrated; formed over an 8-hour period; volume at least 25 mL

35

clean-catch midstream specimen

area is cleansed then midstream clean-catch is collected

36

timed urine specimens

urine sample collected at a specific time; uses preservatives and refrigeration of samples

37

24 hour urine collection

first-morning specimen is discarded and time starts with empty bladder, last specimen is kept

38

3 parts of Urinalysis

physical, chemical, and microscopic

39

Urinalysis

gives health status of body for screening, diagnosis, and treatment

40

Physical Routine Urinalysis

observing color, odor, and appearance of urine

41

urochrome

gives urine its normal yellow color

42

bilirubin

yellow-brown urine

43

urobilinogen

orange-yellow urine

44

biliverdin

green urine by oxidation of bilirubin

45

hemoglobin

dark red urine-red blood cells in urine or red-brown-myoglobin, clear red- porphyrin products, and cloudy red

46

ammonia

splitting of urea

47

sweet

ketones

48

foul

decomposition of leukocytes

49

musty

phenylketonuria (PKU)

50

specific gravity

the weight of urine as compared to an equal volume of water; measures concentration of dissolved substances in urine

51

1.000

specific gravity of distilled water

52

pH

measures acidity/alkalinity in urine

53

lungs and kidneys

organs responsible for maintaining body's acid-base balance

54

7.35-7.45

normal blood pH range

55

5.0-8.0

pH of normal urine

56

alkaline

product of urine sitting out converting urea to ammonia

57

UTI

product of freshly voided urine being alkaline

58

glucose

most common sugar (lactose, fructose, galactose, and pentose); measured on strip by enzyme glucose oxidase

59

glucose in urine

presence indicates diabetes mellitus, strenuous exercise, or stress; false positive by large intake of ascorbic acid and aspirin

60

ketones

products of fat metabolism when carbs are not available for energy; high levels in the blood lead to product in urine; excessive becomes acidic; caused by starvation, low-carb diets, excessive vomiting, and fever

61

acetest

confirmatory test for ketones

62

gallbladder/intestine

after bilirubin enters the liver, it becomes water soluble and is excreted through the ______

63

hemolysis and liver damage

conditions that cause excessive bilirubin blood levels

64

icotest

confirmatory test for bilirubin