Micro Chapter 10

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1) Which of the following statements about archaea is FALSE?

A) They are prokaryotes.

B) They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

C) Some are thermoacidophiles; others are extreme halophiles.

D) They evolved before bacteria.

E) Some produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

D) They evolved before bacteria.

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2) Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria?

A) prokaryotic cells; ether linkages in phospholipids

B) eukaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

C) prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

D) complex cellular structures

E) multicellular

C) prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids

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3) If two organisms have similar rRNA sequences, you can conclude that they

A) live in the same place.

B) evolved from a common ancestor.

C) will have different G-C ratios.

D) will both ferment lactose.

E) mated with each other.

B) evolved from a common ancestor.

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4) What is the outstanding characteristic of the Kingdom Fungi?

A) All members are photosynthetic.

B) Members absorb dissolved organic matter.

C) Members absorb dissolved inorganic matter.

D) All members are microscopic.

E) All members are macroscopic.

B) Members absorb dissolved organic matter.

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7) A genus can best be defined as

A) a taxon composed of families.

B) a taxon composed of one or more species and a classification level lying below family.

C) a taxon belonging to a species.

D) a taxon comprised of classes.

E) the most specific taxon.

B) a taxon composed of one or more species and a classification level lying below family.

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8) A bacterial species differs from a species of eukaryotic organisms in that a bacterial species

A) does not breed with other species.

B) has a limited geographical distribution.

C) can be distinguished from other bacterial species.

D) is a population of cells with similar characteristics.

E) breeds with its own species.

D) is a population of cells with similar characteristics.

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9) Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system?

A) Nucleotide sequences in ribosomal RNA vary between all three domains.

B) There are three distinctly different sets of metabolic reactions.

C) There are three distinctly different Gram reactions.

D) Some bacteria live in extreme environments.

E) There are three distinctly different types of nuclei.

A) Nucleotide sequences in ribosomal RNA vary between all three domains.

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10) A biochemical test, in the microbiology world, is used to determine

A) staining characteristics.

B) amino acid sequences of enzymes.

C) nucleic acid-base composition of DNA sequences.

D) capability of a microbe to perform a specific enzymatic activity.

E) All of the answers are correct.

D) capability of a microbe to perform a specific enzymatic activity.

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12) The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on

A) cell morphology.

B) Gram reaction.

C) rRNA sequences.

D) habitat.

E) diseases.

C) rRNA sequences.

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13) Which of the following statements is a reason for NOT classifying viruses in one of the three

domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya) rather than in a fourth separate domain?

A) Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome.

B) Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells.

C) Viruses are obligate parasites.

D) Viruses are not composed of cells.

E) All of the answers are correct.

D) Viruses are not composed of cells.

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14) Which of the following provides taxonomic information that includes the information obtained in the others listed?

A) nucleic acid hybridization

B) nucleic acid-base composition

C) amino acid sequencing

D) biochemical tests

E) cladogram

E) cladogram

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15) Fossil evidence indicates that prokaryotic cells first existed on the Earth

A) 350 years ago.

B) 3500 years ago.

C) 35000 years ago.

D) 3.5 billion years ago.

E) 3.5 × 1012years ago.

D) 3.5 billion years ago.

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16) In Figure 10.1, species "c." is most closely related to which of the following?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

D) d

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17) In Figure 10.1, the closest ancestor for both species "a." and species "b." would be which of the following?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

E) 5

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20) The arrangement of organisms into taxa

A) shows degrees of relatedness between organisms.

B) shows relationships to common ancestors.

C) was designed by Charles Darwin.

D) is arbitrary.

E) is based on evolution.

A) shows degrees of relatedness between organisms.

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21) Bacteria and Archaea are similar in which of the following?

A) peptidoglycan cell walls

B) methionine as the start signal for protein synthesis

C) sensitivity to antibiotics

D) considered prokaryotic cells

E) plasma membrane ester linkage

D) considered prokaryotic cells

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22) Which of the following best defines a strain in microbiological terms?

A) a pure culture that is not totally identical to other cultures of the same species

B) a group of organisms with a limited geographical distribution

C) a mixed population of cells,genetically distinct, but with highly similar phenotypic characteristics

D) groups of cells all derived from and identical to a single parent species

E) same as a species

A) a pure culture that is not totally identical to other cultures of the same species

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23) Serological testing is based on the fact that

A) all bacteria have the same antigens.

B) antibodies react specifically with an antigen.

C) the human body makes antibodies against bacteria.

D) antibodies cause the formation of antigens.

E) bacteria clump together when mixed with any antibodies.

B) antibodies react specifically with an antigen.

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26) Nucleic acid hybridization is based on the fact that

A) the strands of DNA can be separated.

B) a chromosome is composed of complementary strands.

C) pairing between complementary bases occurs.

D) DNA is composed of genes.

E) all cells have DNA.

C) pairing between complementary bases occurs.

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27) One of the most popular taxonomic tools is DNA fingerprinting to develop profiles of organisms. These profiles provide direct information about

A) enzymatic activities.

B) protein composition.

C) the presence of specific genes.

D) antigenic composition.

E) the similarities between nucleotide sequences.

E) the similarities between nucleotide sequences.

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30) A clone is

A) genetically identical cells derived from a single cell.

B) a genetically engineered cell.

C) a taxon composed of species.

D) a mound of cells on an agar medium.

E) None of the answers is correct.

A) genetically identical cells derived from a single cell.

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In Figure 10.2, which figure shows the most closely related organisms?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

B) b

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34) Into which group would you place a multicellular heterotroph with chitin cell walls?

A) Animalia

B) Archaea

C) Bacteria

D) Fungi

E) Plantae

D) Fungi

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36) Into which group would you place a photosynthetic cell that lacks a nucleus?

A) Animalia

B) Bacteria

C) Fungi

D) Plantae

E) Protista

B) Bacteria

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37) You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. You suspect the organism is in the group

A) Animalia.

B) Archaea.

C) Bacteria.

D) Fungi.

E) Plantae.

B) Archaea.

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42) Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by an outer membrane?

A) Animalia

B) Fungi

C) Plantae

D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)

E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)