chapter 7

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1

Is a complex highly organized system that coordinates all teh activities of the body

Nervous System

2

What is the primary function of the Nervous System

This system enables the body to respond and adapt to changes that occur both inside and outside the body

3

basic structural unit of the nervous system

Neuron

4

carries impulses toward the cell body

Dendrites

5

carries impulses away from the cell body

Axon

6

lipid covering

Myelin sheath

7

the spaces between the dendrites

Synapses

8

combination of many nerve fibers

Nerves

9

CNS

brain and the spinal cord

10

PNS

consists of the nerves

11

mass of connective tissue

Brain

12

largest highest section of the brain

Cerebrum

13

section below the back of the cerebrum and is responsible for muscle coordination and balance

Cerebellum

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the section between the cerebrum and mid-brain containing the thalamus and hypothalamus

Diencephalon

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acts as a relay center and directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum and allows conscious recognition of pain and temperature

Thalamus

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regulates and controls the automatic nervous system temperature, appetites, water balance, sleep, and blood vessel construction and dilation

Hypothalamus

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the hypothalumas is involved in emotions

anger, fear, pleasure, pain, and affection

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section located below the cerebrum at eh top of the brainstem

Midbrain

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Midbrain is responsible for impulses such as....

eye and auditory reflexes

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the section located below the mid-brain and in the brain-stem

Pons

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The Pons if responsible for...

conducting messages to other parts of the brain and certain reflexes and actions including chewing, tasting, salivating, and respiration assistance

22

the lowest part of the brainstem

Medulla oblongata

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The Medulla Oblongata is responsible for......

it connects with the spinal cord and is responsible for regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and blood pressure

24

continues sown from the medulla oblongata and ends at the first or second lumbar vertebrae

Spinal Cord

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The Spinal Cord is responsible for....

carrying sensory, messages up to the brain, and motor messages from the brain to the nerves that go to the muscles and glands

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three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord

Meninges

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thick tough outer layer

Dura Mater

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the middle layer if a delicate and web-like and is loosly attached to the other meninges t allow space for fluid to flow between the layers

Aurachnoid Membrane

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the innermost layer is closely attached the brain and spinal cord and contains blood vessels that nourish the nerve tissue

Pia Matter

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This has 4 ventricals

Brain

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hollow spaces that connect with each other and with the space under the arachnoid membrane

Ventricles

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the ventricles are filled with a clear colorless fluid

Cerebrospinal Fluid

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the cerebrospinal fluid funtions as....

it circulates continually between the ventricles and through the subarachnoid space

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Once o the main functions of the cerebrospinal fluid is...........

shock absorbed to protect the brain and spinal cord, it carries nutrients to some parts of the brain and spinal cord and helps remove metabolic products and wastes

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the fluid is produced in the ventricles of the brain by the special structures called.........

Choroid Plexuses

36

after circulating it is absorbed into the blood vessels of the dura mater and returned to the blood stream through special structures called..........

Arachnoid Villi

37

Diencephalon

located in the middle brain made of the thalamus and the hypothalamus

38

Each lobe of the brain is responsible for............

different functions and reflexes

39

The Peripheral Nervous System consists of the.........

Somatic and Automatic Nervous Systems

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Somatic Nervous System

sight, hearing, taste, and smell

touch, pressure, pain, and temperature

controls voluntary and involuntary impulses

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Automatic Nervous System

helps maintain balance

helps maintain fight or flight response

helps to calm the body down

42

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

chronic degenerative neuromuscluar disease

the cause is unknown

loose all control to eat breath and communicate

43

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

when the medial nerve is pinched

symptoms include pain, muscle weakness, and impaired movement

44

Cerebral Palsy

disturbance in voluntary muscle action

symptoms incleud exaggerated relfexes, spasms, and tremmors

treatment is braces, casts, drugs,relaxants

45

Cerebrovascular Accident

also called a brain attack, stroke, apoplexy

symptoms include weakness, paralysis, dizziness, and visual disturbances

treatment is clot busting

46

Encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

caused by a virus pr bacterium

treatment includes drugs, electrolytes balance, and fluids

47

Epilepsy

brain disorder associated with abnormal brain impulses

infections can cause abnormal impulses

also known as seizure syndrome

48

Hydrocephalus

exsessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid

causeed by a birth defect or infection

enlarged head, prominatre forehead, bulging eyes, irratibility

49

Meningitis

inflammation of the meninges of the brain and or spinal cord

symptoms include high fever headaches, back and neck, and pain

treatment includes medication

50

Multiple Sclerosis

usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 40

disease progresses in different speeds

symptoms includes weakness fatigue, poor coordination, and tingling and numbness

51

Neuralgia

nerve pain

caused by inflammation

treatment is eliminating cause of the pain

52

Paralysis

results from brain and spinal cord injury

looses function or feeling below the injury

treatment includes physical and occupational therapy

53

Parkinson's Disease

chronic progressive condition involving degeneration of brain cells

usually in persons over 50

physical therapy is treatment

54

Shingles

acute inflammation of the nerve cells

caused by herpes virus or chicken pox

occurs in thoracic area