PSC 231 International Politics

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1

Power as Influence

ability to get another state to do something they would not do so otherwise

2

Power as Capabilities

measuring power by resources: military prepardness, natural resources like oil, industrial capacity, patriotism/nationalism (moral legitimacy), popular support of govt

3

International Security (IS)

focus on diplomacy, security alliances, foreign relations

4

International Political Economy

dealing with monetary exchange rates w/other nations or states

5

State

a territorial entity controlled by a govt and inhabited by a population--no higher authority than state

6

Soveregnity

a state's right to do whatever it wants within it's own territory

7

what does a state need to be considered soverign in the world?

internal and external legitimacy

8

Non-State Actors

IGO's, NGO's, MNC's, GONGO's

9

Intergovernmental Organization (IGOs)

some things too expensive for one state to do alone so work together with IGO

ex) United Nations, world banks, NATO, World Trade

10

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

are important to politics, even tho they are non state actors.

EX) green peace, doctors w/o borders

are active in humanitarian, educational, healthcare, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives

11

Multi-National Corporations (MNCs)

Owns or controls production of certain goods in other countries other than their home ex) ford, apple, hundai, etc.

have large potential for political power

12

Empirical Statehood

some states are more important than others. Based on the recogniton of the attributes states have and their power diffrences

13

Juridical statehood

legal statehood. Each state are soverign equals

14

what is a nation?

group of ppl w/similar qualities

ex) Japan

15

what is a state?

when talking about govt institutions

ex) congress or us govt

16

Individual level of analysis

leaders

perceptions, choices, and actions of individuals

17

Domestic level of analysis

factors within a state that influence state actions at the international level

ex) like what kind of economy place has

18

interstate (international) level of analysis

interactions between states

19

global level of analysis

looks at global trends and forces

ex) mass migration, climate change, globalization

20

Nationalism

countries began to bring many small states together into one nation.

21

What helped Japan and Germany in building political regimes based on facism prior to WWI

Nationalism

22

What is the world economy of today? (21st century)

globalization

23

What 2 things did treaty of versailles call for?

1. harsh economic snactions on germany

2. called for the league of nations

24

Why did league of nations fail?

bc it did not have real power over its members

25

NATO

security alliance with Canada and western european powers

26

Warsaw pact

U.S. allowed Germany to arm their forces. Russia got nervous so they wanted a treaty bc of the fear of nuclear weapons

27

Policy of Containment

George Kenman

wrote to contain Soviet Union and their policies

28

Why does geography matter?

where state is will determine it's role in the internatinal system

29

The ease with which members hold together an alliance is called what?

Cohesion

30

examples of powers as capabilities

military prepardness, natural resources, industrial capacity, moral legitimacy (patriotism/nationalism), and popular support of govt

31

When does relative power matter?

When comparing to other states

32

National power

takes on meaning only as it affects a state's behavior toward another state

33

Compellence

the use of force to make another actor take a particular action

changing behavior

34

deterrence

a policy aimed at influencing another state or non-state actor to not do something it would otherwise do

present behavior: threat of use of force but not mean use actual force

35

Correlates of War Project

used to measure capablities as an index and way to assess potential powers

ex) uses demographic capabilities, industrial capabilites, and military capabilities

36

demographic capabilities

ex) population

37

industrial capabilites

ex) enerygy consumption, iron and steel production

38

military capabilities

military expenditures, size of armed forces

39

Polarity

how power is distrubuted state to state in international system

40

norms

shared expectations about what behavior is considered power

41

anarchy

lack of a central govt that can enforce rules (INTERNATIONAL LVL, no world govt)

42

Security Dilemma

a situation in which states' actions to assure own security threaten the security of other states

ex) build up army so much its threathening, like building nuclear arms

43

Great powers

relates a lot to military capability

ex) U.S, Russia, China

44

middle powers

have regional role

ex) australia, spain, new zealand

45

micro powers

Tuvalu, kiribati

46

unipolar

power is in the hands of a single state or empire

47

bipolar

power is divided between two major states or empires

ex) cold war ~ U.S and Russia

48

Multipolar

power is fragmented across several great powers

49

non-polar

no significant concentration of power

-Power is usually unclear

50

Soft Power

influence through attraction via psychology

ex) give foreign aid

51

Hard powers

use force (coercion)

52

In what 2 ways do states increase influence in world politics

1) build up own capabilities (enhacne own self-security)

2) enter into alliances

53

how do realists considers alliances need to be

fluid and short-termed

bc trust and compliance can be issues in future

54

Cohesion type of Alliances

upholding the alliance commitments

55

burden sharing

usually in terms of financial support, and territory for bases

larger most powerful states usually carry burden

56

Why is U.S-Japan treaty asymmetrical

only U.S. required to come defend japan if needed, no other way around

57

Why is NATO symmetrical

all members of treaty expected/ obligated to help if 1 member is attacked

58

bargaining

direct communication in an attempt to reach agreement on an exchange of value

59

Reciprocity

a response in kind to the other's action; tit-for-tat

ex) if you invade, we will respond and invade too

60

deterrence

policy to punish if actor takes negative action

61

compellence

use of force to make another take action

62

Game theory

branch of math used to study bargaining behavior and diff. strategies

63

Zero-Sum games

gains and losses for all = 0

gain for one is loss for another so it balances out

one persons gain is equal to others loss

64

Hegemony

the holding by one state a preponderance (importance) of global capabilites

dominace of one over another

65

collective security

the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in order to jointly oppose aggresion by other actor on an international lvl

66

examples of collective security

UN (fail bc U.S no join and no real power over members) and UNSC (has power to enforce rules/binding resolutions)

67

Postmodernism

see hidden meanings/subtext

provide criticism on knowlege creation

deconstructs all of realism. more to understand not explain. states have identities

68

socail constrcutivists

nothing is neutral or objetive, states have complex identites, anarchy=what states want it to be, focus on evolution of norms and where states interests come from

69

to constructivism, what are domestic sources of norms

Political structure and cultural values

70

positive peace

seek to reslove underlying conflict of war

71

What are world federlists and what do they want

they are peace study believers and want global govt as long-term solution to anarchy

72

Difference Feminsim

believe women possess certain values beneficial to IR

bc men and women experince world differently

73

liberal feminsim

believe that essetial differences between men and women are nonesistent and vital. should be treat equal but not

74

postmodern feminism

diff between men and women are important but arbitrary (come from personal need and not necesity) and flexible

diff is imporant but look at subtext