Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea review questions

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1

The first forms of life on Earth were thought to be_________.

a. single-celled plants

b. prokaryotes

c. insects

d. large animals such as dinosaurs

a

2

Microbial mats __________.

a. are the earliest forms of life on Earth

b. obtained their energy and food from hydrothermal vents

c. are multi-layered sheet of prokaryotes including mostly bacteria but also archaea

d. all of the above

d

3

The first organisms that oxygenated the atmosphere were

a. cyanobacteria

b. phototrophic organisms

c. anaerobic organisms

d. all of the above

a

4

Halophiles are organisms that require________.

a. a salt concentration of at least 0.2 M

b. high sugar concentration

c. the addition of halogens

d. all of the above

a

5

The presence of a membrane-enclosed nucleus is a characteristic of ________.

a. prokaryotic cells

b. eukaryotic cells

c. all cells

d. viruses

b

6

Which of the following consist of prokaryotic cells?

a. bacteria and fungi

b. archaea and fungi

c. protists and animals

d. bacteria and archaea

d

7

The cell wall is ________.

a. interior to the cell membrane

b. exterior to the cell membrane

c. a part of the cell membrane

d. interior or exterior, depending on the particular cell

b

8

Organisms most likely to be found in extreme environments are ________.

a. fungi

b. bacteria

c. viruses

d. archaea

b

9

Prokaryotes stain as Gram-positive or Gram-negative because of differences in the cell _______.

a. wall

b. cytoplasm

c. nucleus

d. chromosome

a

10

Pseudopeptidoglycan is a characteristic of the walls of ________.

a. eukaryotic cells

b. bacterial prokaryotic cells

c. archaean prokaryotic cells

d. bacterial and archaean prokaryotic cells

c

11

The lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS) is a characteristic of the wall of ________.

a. archaean cells

b. Gram-negative bacteria

c. bacterial prokaryotic cells

d. eukaryotic cells

b

12

Which of the following elements is not a micronutrient?

a. boron

b. calcium

c. chromium

d. manganese

b

13

Prokaryotes that obtain their energy from chemical compounds are called _____.

a. phototrophs

b. auxotrophs

c. chemotrophs

d. lithotrophs

c

14

Ammonification is the process by which _____.

a. ammonia is released during the decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic compounds

b. ammonium is converted to nitrite and nitrate in soils

c. nitrate from soil is transformed to gaseous nitrogen compounds such as NO, N2O, and N2

d. gaseous nitrogen is fixed to yield ammonia

a

15

Plants use carbon dioxide from the air and are therefore called _____.

a. consumers

b. producers

c. decomposer

d. carbon fixers

b

16

A disease that is constantly present in a population is called _____.

a. pandemic

b. epidemic

c. endemic

d. re-emerging

c

17

Which of the statements about biofilms is incorrect?

a. Biofilms are considered responsible for diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

b. Biofilms produce dental plaque, and colonize catheters and prostheses.

c. Biofilms colonize open wounds and burned tissue.

d. All statements are incorrect.

d

18

Which of these statements is true?

a. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a organism that is antagonistic to the growth of prokaryotes.

b. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a prokaryote that is antagonistic to the growth of other viruses.

c. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a prokaryote that is antagonistic to the growth of eukaryotic cells.

d. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a prokaryote that prevents growth of the same prokaryote.

a

19

Which of these occurs through symbiotic nitrogen fixation?

a. The plant benefits from using an endless source of nitrogen.

b. The soil benefits from being naturally fertilized.

c. Bacteria benefit from using photosynthates from the plant.

d. All of the above occur.

d

20

Synthetic compounds found in an organism but not normally produced or expected to be present in that organism are called _____.

a. pesticides

b. bioremediators

c. recalcitrant compounds

d. xenobiotics

d

21

Bioremediation includes _____.

a. the use of prokaryotes that can fix nitrogen

b. the use of prokaryotes to clean up pollutants

c. the use of prokaryotes as natural fertilizers

d. All of the above

b