Chapter 5

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by lwhitten
16 views
Vocabulary
updated 3 years ago by lwhitten
Subjects:
microbiology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

THE SUM OF THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN AN ORGANISM.

METABOLISM

2

PROCESSES THAT BREAK DOWN COMPLEX STRUCTURES OR MOLECULES INTO SMALLER ONES. IT IS AN ENERGY-RELEASING PROCESS.

CATABOLISM

3

ALL REACTIONS IN WHICH LARGER MOLECULES OR STRUCTURES ARE BUILT FROM SMALLER ONES. IT IS AN ENERGY-USING PROCESS.

ANABOLISM

4

SEQUENCE OF ENZYMATICALLY CATALYZED CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A CELL.

METABOLIC PATHWAY

5

STATES THAT CHEMICAL REACTIONS CAN OCCUR WHEN ATOMS, IONS, AND MOLECULES COLLIDE.

COLLISION THEORY

6

NEEDED TO DISRUPT ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS.

ACTIVATION ENERGY

7

THE FREQUENCY OF COLLISIONS WITH ENOUGH ENERGY TO BRING ABOUT A REACTION.

REACTION RATE

8

BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS OR SUBSTANCES THAT CAN SPEED UP A CHEMICAL REACTION WITHOUT BEING PERMANENTLY ALTERED THEMSELVES.

ENZYMES

9

SPECIFIC FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION; EACH ENZYME ACTS ON A SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE.

SUBSTRATE

10

FORMED BY THE TEMPORARY BINDING OF SUBSTRATE AND ENZYME.

ENZYME SUBSTRATE COMPLEX

11

GENERALLY 1 TO 10,000 MOLECULES PER SECOND.

TURNOVER NUMBER

12

ENZYMES CAN BE _________ BY TEMP. AND pH.

DENATURIZED

13

COMPETES WITH NORMAL SUBSTRATE FOR THE ACTIVE SITE.

COMPETITIVE INHIBITION

14

A MECHANISM THAT STOPS THE ENZYME FROM CREATING MORE PRODUCT THAN IS NEEDED.

FEEDBACK INHIBITION

15

ATTACHES TO A DIFFERENT SPOT ON THE ENZYME BUT CHANGES THE SHAPE OF THE ACTIVE SITE.

NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITION

16

THE REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS.

OXIDATION

17

OXIDATION REACTION PAIRED WITH A REDUCTION REACTION

REDOX REACTION

18

GAIN OF ELECTRONS.

REDUCTION

19

BREAKS DOWN GLUCOSE MOLECULES AND BANKS THEIR ENERGY IN ATP.

CELL RESPIRATION

20

TRANSFER OF A PHOSPHATE GROUP TO A MOLECULE.

PHOSPHORYLATION

21

LIGHT CAUSES CHLOROPHYLL TO GIVE UP ELECTRONS. ENERGY RELEASED FROM TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS OF CHLOROPHYLL THROUGH A SYSTEM OF CARRIER MOLECULES IS USED TO GENERATE ATP.

PHOTOPHOSPHROYLATION

22

PRODUCTION OF ATP IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN.

AEROBIC RESPIRATION

23

PRODUCTION OF ATP IN THE ABSENCE OF OXYGEN.

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

24

PRODUCES ETHANOL = CO2

ALCOHOL FERMENTATION

25

PRODUCES LACTIC ACID

LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

26

PRODUCES LACTIC ACID ONLY

HOMOFERMENTATION

27

PRODUCES LACTIC ACID AND OTHER COMPOUNDS

HETEROFERMENTATION

28

PRODUCES OXYGEN

OXYGENIC

29

DOES NOT PRODUCE OXYGEN

ANOXYGENIC

30

SYNTHESIS OF SUGARS SUCH AS GLYCOGEN.

POLYSACCHARIDE BIOSYNTHESIS

31

SYNTHESIS OF FATS BY JOINING GYCEROL AND FATTY ACIDS.

LIPID BIOSYNTHESIS

32

SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS WHICH ARE THEN USED IN THE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEINS.

AMINO ACID BIOSYNTHESIS

33

METABOLIC PATHWAYS THAT HAVE BOTH CATABOLIC AND ANABOLIC FUNCTIONS.

AMPHIBOLIC PATHWAYS

34

A NONPROTEIN SUBSTANCE THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH AND THAT ACTIVATES AN ENZYME.

COENZYME

35

GLYCOLYSIS PLUS AN ADDITIONAL STEP.

FERMENTATION

36

USED TO IDENTIFY BACTERIA.

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS

37

PROCESS BY WHICH AUTOTROPHIC ORGANISMS USE LIGHT ENERGY TO MAKE SUGAR AND OXYGEN GAS FROM CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

38

USE ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS.

CHEMOTROPHS

39

USE LIGHT ENERGY

PHOTOTROPHS