Anatomy & Physiology II - Test 1 Review

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Describe the 3 functions of blood:

1.) Transports O2, CO2, nutrients, hormones, stem cells

2.) Regulates homeostasis, stabilizes pH & temperature

3.) Protein - limits spread of infection, neutralizes toxins


Physical properties of blood:

Thick, flows slowly


What are the components of blood:

White blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes) & platelets (thrombocytes)


Describe the composition of blood plasma:

Proteins, nutrients & water


Explain the significance of blood viscosity:

The resistance of a fluid to flow. If viscosity is increased, blood flows slowly


Explain the significance of osmolarity:

The result of dissolved particles that can't pass through the blood vessel wall


How is blood produced:

Kidney's produce & release erythroprotein, a hormone that activates bone marrow to produce more RBC's


Describe lifecycle of erythrocytes:

Begins in red bone marrow, 1st a hemocytoblast stem cell, 2nd proerythroblast committed cell, 3rd early erythroblast, 4th late erythroblast, 5th & 6th normoblast, 7th reticulocyte, 8th finished erythrocyte


Describe production of erythrocytes:

Called erythropoiesis, begins when a myeloid stem cell is transformed into a proerythroblast which turns into mature erythrocytes. Process takes 5-7 days


Structure of erythrocyte:

Large surface for diffusion, thin in middle & thicker at rims, round shape allows them to squeeze through narrow places and doesn't have a nuclei


What is the function of an erythrocyte:

Carries O2 from lungs to body, brings CO2 back to lungs


Structure of hemoglobin:

Composed of a protein chain associated with a non-protein group, has 4 subunits


What is the function of a hemoglobin:

Carries O2 from lungs to rest of the body, resistance to malaria


What determines people's ABO & Rh blood types:

The presence or absence of A / B antigens on surface of RBC


Describe the effect of incompatibility between mother & fetus in Rh blood types:

Occurs when mom is Rh- & baby is Rh+. A small amount of fetal blood enters the maternal bloodstream, mom makes anti-Rh+ antibodies. Baby may be born with anemic or have neurological issues


Structure of leukocytes:

Has a nucleus and other organelles


What is the function of a leukocyte:

Protect body against infections & invaders


What are granulocytes:

WBC with granules in cytoplasm (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)


What are agranulocytes:

WBC with one-lobed nucleus, absence of granules in cytoplasm (B & T cells)


What is the process of phagocytosis:

Cell ingesting/engulfing other cells or particles


What is the function of a histamine:

Immune response, when humans come in contact with allergen, histamine is released by the body to the site


What is the function of heparin:

Drug that manages & treats blood clots (can be used after surgery during blood transfusions)


Name the 5 types of leukocytes & their role:

1.) Neutrophils - sense signals of infection and are the first to begin killing (eats bacteria)

2.) Eosinophils - fight effects of histamine (inflammation hormone) parasitic worm

3.) Basophils - enhance inflammatory reactions (allergies), contains anticoagulant heparin (prevents blood from clotting too quickly)

4.) Lymphocytes - work as part of the immune system, eliminates invaders by attacking

5.) Monocytes - fight off bacteria, viruses & fungi, turns into macrophage (big eater of old RBC)


What is a differential WBC count:

Determines the % of each type of WBC present in the blood


What is the total WBC:

Blood test to measure the number of WBC's present in the blood


Structure of platelets:

Small, granulated, diameter of 2-3um, no nucleus


What is the function of platelets:

To stop bleeding by clotting the blood vessel injuries


Explain the pulmonary circuit:

Carries deoxygenated blood away from right ventricle of heart to lungs & ventricle of the heart


Explain the systemic circuit:

Carried blood away from the heart, delivers it to most of the organs & tissues and back to the heart


Describe the location, shape and size of the heart:

Located in mediastinum (space between lungs), lungs are lateral to heart, cone-shaped, size of a fist


Describe the 3 layers of the heart wall:

1.) Epicardium - outer layer, lubricates & protects heart

2.) Myocardium - muscular middle layer, responsible for pumping blood (heart muscle)

3.) Endocardium - lines inside of heart, responsible for keeping blood from sticking to the heart


What are the 4 chambers of the heart:

1.) Atria - 2 superior chambers

2.) Ventricle - 2 inferior chambers


What are the 4 valves of the heart:

1.) Atrioventricular - 2 AV valves

2.) Semilunar - 2 SL valves


What is the structure of the cardiac muscle:

Striated, short, thick, branched cells


Describe the heart's pacemaker & internal electrical conduction:

Electrical impulses from your heart muscle cause your heart to beat


What is an electrocardiogram:

Recording of electrical signals, composed of action potentials made by heart muscle fibres during each heartbeat


Interpret a normal electrocardiogram:

Small increase bump, small decrease bump, sharp increase, sharp decrease, small increase bump, bigger increase bump, pause, repeat

(P wave, PR interval, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, QT interval)


What causes the sounds of a heartbeat:

The AV & SL valves closing


Define cardiac output & it's imporatnce:

The volume of blood ejected from a ventricle every minute, during exercise your muscles need more oxygen when you exert yourself


Identify factors that control cardiac output:

Heart rate, contractility, preload & afterload


What are some nervous chemical factors that alter heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output:

Hormones, cations, low oxygen level, low pH


What is the function of arteries:

Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to tissue


Structure of arteries:

Wall of 3 layers;

1.) Tunica intima - simple squamous epithelium

2.) Tunica media - thickest smooth muscle

3.) Tunica externa - outer layer


What is the function of arterioles:

Transport blood from arteries to capillaries, main regulator of blood flow & pressure


Structure of arterioles:

Tiny branches of arteries that lead to capillaries


What is the function of capillaries:

Bring nutrients and oxygen to tissue to remove waste products, thin wall allows substances to quickly & easily pass through


Structure of capillaries:

Very thin 1 layer wall made of endothelial cells, thinner than arteries & veins


What is the function of venules:

Allows deoxygenated blood to return from capillary beds to larger veins, many unite to form a vein


Structure of venules:

Formed when capillaries come together, thicker end is closer to heart, thinner end is at capillary end


What is the function of veins:

Returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart after arteries carry blood out


Structure of veins:

Thinner walls than arteries, has 3 layers, consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres and collagen


Pulmonary circuit route:

Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the air sacs (alveoli) within the lungs, returns oxygenated blood from air sacs to the left atrium


Systemic circuit route:

Carries oxygen and nutrients to body tissue and removes CO2 and other wastes from the tissue, deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through the systemic veins


Identify the various hormones that help regulate blood pressure:

1.) Epinephrine & Norepinephrine - hormones increase cardiac output by increasing rate of heart contractions (released in medulla)

2.) Antidiuretic - released from pituitary in response to dehydration or decreased blood volume (produced by hypothalamus)

3.) Atrial natriuretic peptide - lowers BP by causing vasodilation and by promoting loss of salt & water

4.) Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone - produces hormone to raise BP


Purpose of vasomotion:

Regulates BP and blood flow


What does the upper respiratory include:

Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx


What does the lower respiratory include:

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs


Structure & function of the 4 major paranasal sinuses:

1.) Frontal - triangular, enlightens face

2.) Ethmoidal - provides lubrication to inner nose, makes voice deeper as they grow

3.) Sphenoidal - air-filled sacs on either side, filter clean air breathed through nose

4.) Maxillary - pyramid shape, deepness of voice, moist inhaled air, lighten face


Location of pleural space:

Between the 2 pulmonary pleurae (visceral & parietal) of each lung


Structure of pleural space:

A serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a 2-layered membrane structure.

3 layers; parietal pleura (outside), visceral pleura (middle), pleural cavity (inside)


Describe tidal volume:

Lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied


Describe vital capacity:

The greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible


Define inspiratory reserve volume:

The max amount of additional air that can be drawn into the lungs by determined effort after normal inspiration


Define expiratory reserve volume:

The additional amount of air that can be expired from the lungs by determines effort after normal expiration


Define residual volume:

The volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forcible expiration possible


Define anatomical dead space:

Total volume of the conducting airways from the nose or mouth down to the level of the terminal bronchioles


Explain Dalton's law:

The composition of air


Explain Henry's law:

How gases behave when they are in contact with the water film lining the alveoli


Explain Boyle's law:

Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts it’s own pressure as if no other gases were present


Effects of exercise on the respiratory system:

When muscles contract during exercise they consume large amounts of O2 and produce large amounts of CO2


Effects of ageing on the respiratory system:

Airways and tissues of the respiratory tract become less elastic and more rigid as well as the chest wall, this results in a decrease in lung capacity

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Locate the... total lungs capacity, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, inhalation/exhalation, tidal volume, inspiratory/expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume