A&P 1 Chapter 1,2,3

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1

The elbow is proximal to the shoulder

False

2

The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum

False

3

Lungs carry out excretory function.

True

4

Histology is the study of

Tissues

5

Normal body temp is _____________ degrees Celsius.

37 degrees Celsius

6

Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex.

MOLECULES, ATOMS, TISSUES, CELLS, ORGAN

ATOMS, MOLECULES, CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS (A,M,C,T,O)

7

The study of the heart as a whole, is what type of anatomy?

Gross

8

What do we call a disruption in Homeostasis?

What does it lead to?

Homeostatic Imbalance. It increase the risk of disease that contributes to changes that come with aging.

9

What are the survival needs of the body?

Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Body Temperature, and Atmospheric pressure

10

Name the 3 cavities you would find the lungs in.

Plural, Thoracic, Ventral

11

What are the four basic tissue types found in the body?

Epithelium, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

12

Define positive feedback mechanisms. Give examples of each.

PFB- Enhances the original stimulus ( Used only under stress)

EX: Labor or blood clotting

13

Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least 3 interdependent components. What are they?

Receptor, Control Center, Effector

14

What four elements make up about 96% of human body weight?

Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)

15

The building blocks of elements are called

Atoms

16

An element has a mass of 207 and 125 neutrons in its nucleus. How many protons & electrons does it have & where are they located?

Mass 207

-

Neutrons 125 (in the nucleus)

________________________

82 Protons inside the nucleus

&

82 Electrons orbiting the nucleus

17

Three stable isotopes of oxygen are: 16O 17O 18O. Oxygen has a standard atomic weight of 15.9994 and its atomic number is 8. Which isotope would you consider the most abundant? Identify the mass number, the number of protons, the number of electrons, and the number of neutrons for each isotope.

16O 17O 18O

Protons = 8 Protons = 8 Protons = 8

Electrons= 8 Electrons= 8 Electrons= 8

Mass= 16-8= 8 Mass =17-8=9 Mass= 18-8=10

Neutron=8 Neutron=9 Neutron= 10

16O is the most abundant

18

Ionic bonds

transfer electrons

19

Most ionic compounds fall into what chemical category?

Salts

20

All ions are _________________, substances that conduct an electrical current in solution.

Charged

21

What type of bond us responsible for the surface tension that is formed by water molecules clinging together?

Hydrogen Bonds

22

Blood is considered a

suspension

23

What four factors influence the rate of chemical reactions?

Temperature, Particle size, Concentration of reactant, Catalysts

24

The pH scale measures

The Concentration of hydrogen ions

25

A pH of 2 is considered

acidic

26

A buffer will release hydrogen ions when the pH of a solution rises.

True

27

Organic compounds contain ______________ in combination with _________________.

Carbon & Hydrogen

28

What is the most abundant inorganic compound? List its properties and circle the property that is most important when we sweat.

H= is the most abundant

water high heat vaporization

29

What are the building blocks if carbohydrates?

Simple sugars/monosciccharides

30

Name the 3 hexose simple sugars.

Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

31

All enzymes are proteins.

False

32

The substance on which an enzyme acts is called a

Substrate

33

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino Acids

34

What are the building blocks of lipids?

Fatty acids

35

Name the three types of lipids.

Neutral fats or triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids

36

What are the four structural levels of proteins? Give a brief description of each.

Primary- Polypepide is aligner sequence of AC

Secondary - Alpha helix & beta sheets coiled or linked to primary sheet.

Tertiary- 2nd structure fold upon another & form globular

Quaternary- 2 more polypeptide tertiary structures aggregate together.

37

What is the difference between peroxisomes and lysosomes?

Peroxisomes-Neutralize dangerous radicals & detoxify harmful toxic substances.

Lysosomes-Digest ingested bacteria, viruses & toxins destroy cell in injured tissues.

38

what is smooth ER?

Catalyze reactions (no role in protein synthesis)

39

What are the two major classes of nucleic acids?

DNA & RNA

40

The structural unit of nucleic acids are

Nucleotides

41

List the 3 components nucleotides are composed of.

1. Nitrogenous Base- Purines & pyrimidines

2. 5 carbon sugars- Ribose & deoxribose

3. Phosphate group

42

List the 5 types of nucleotides and match up the base pairs. Identify which are found in DNA and RNA.

Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Uracil (U)

DNA (A, T, G, C)

RNA (A, U, G, C)

43

Where is DNA located in the cell?

Nucelus

44

Where is RNA chiefly located in the cell?

Cytoplasm

45

The currency of the cell is

ATP

46

Define a gene.

Segment of a DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating one polypeptide chain.

47

Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion requires ATP.

False

48

A cell would crenate in a hypotonic solution.

False

49

mRNA, tRNA, & rRNA are all involved in protein synthesis.

True

50

The cleavage furrow is formed during cytokinesis.

True

51

What factors affect the rate of diffusion?

Particle size, temperature, concentration, distance

52

Describe a cell membrane structure and primary active transport using the following terms: Phospholipids, sodium ions, potassium ions, ATP, ADP, hydrolysis, ATPase, intracellular, and extracellular.

1. cytoplasmic Na+ binds to K+ pump (Na+low & K+high)

2. Na+ binding promotes hydrolysis of ATP

3. Phosphorylation causes pump to change shape expelling Na+ out.

4. Extracellular K+binds to the protein triggering release of the phosphate group.

5. Loss of the phosphate restores the protein original conformation.

6. Pump protein binds ATP, K+ is released, Na+site are receptive again the cycle repeats.

53

What is the definition of cytokinesis?

Division of the cytoplasm

54

What part of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?

S phase/synthesis

55

What are the phases of mitosis and what happens in each phase?

Prophase- Chromosome become visible, each with 2 chromatids jointed to centromere.

Metaphase- Are aligned at the equator of the centromere

Anaphase- Towards poles split at the chromosome pulled apart.

Telephase- Cytokineses ends and the rebuild begins again.

56

Define transcription and identify where in the cell they take place.

DNA information coded in mRNA takes place in the nucleus. ( inside the cell)

57

Define translation and identify where in the cell they take place.

mRNA decoded & takes place in the cytoplasm(outside the cell)

58

Define negative feedback mechanisms. Give examples of each.

NFB- Keeps our body in check/controlled. (Used most of the time)

EX: Body Temperature

59

what is rough ER?

Manufactures all secreted protein. (Protein synthesis)