A&P 1 Chapter 1,2,3
The elbow is proximal to the shoulder
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum
Lungs carry out excretory function.
Histology is the study of
Normal body temp is _____________ degrees Celsius.
37 degrees Celsius
Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex.
MOLECULES, ATOMS, TISSUES, CELLS, ORGAN
ATOMS, MOLECULES, CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS (A,M,C,T,O)
The study of the heart as a whole, is what type of anatomy?
What do we call a disruption in Homeostasis?
What does it lead to?
Homeostatic Imbalance. It increase the risk of disease that contributes to changes that come with aging.
What are the survival needs of the body?
Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Body Temperature, and Atmospheric pressure
Name the 3 cavities you would find the lungs in.
Plural, Thoracic, Ventral
What are the four basic tissue types found in the body?
Epithelium, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Define positive feedback mechanisms. Give examples of each.
PFB- Enhances the original stimulus ( Used only under stress)
EX: Labor or blood clotting
Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least 3 interdependent components. What are they?
Receptor, Control Center, Effector
What four elements make up about 96% of human body weight?
Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)
The building blocks of elements are called
An element has a mass of 207 and 125 neutrons in its nucleus. How many protons & electrons does it have & where are they located?
Neutrons 125 (in the nucleus)
82 Protons inside the nucleus
82 Electrons orbiting the nucleus
Three stable isotopes of oxygen are: 16O 17O 18O. Oxygen has a standard atomic weight of 15.9994 and its atomic number is 8. Which isotope would you consider the most abundant? Identify the mass number, the number of protons, the number of electrons, and the number of neutrons for each isotope.
16O 17O 18O
Protons = 8 Protons = 8 Protons = 8
Electrons= 8 Electrons= 8 Electrons= 8
Mass= 16-8= 8 Mass =17-8=9 Mass= 18-8=10
Neutron=8 Neutron=9 Neutron= 10
16O is the most abundant
Most ionic compounds fall into what chemical category?
All ions are _________________, substances that conduct an electrical current in solution.
What type of bond us responsible for the surface tension that is formed by water molecules clinging together?
Blood is considered a
What four factors influence the rate of chemical reactions?
Temperature, Particle size, Concentration of reactant, Catalysts
The pH scale measures
The Concentration of hydrogen ions
A pH of 2 is considered
A buffer will release hydrogen ions when the pH of a solution rises.
Organic compounds contain ______________ in combination with _________________.
Carbon & Hydrogen
What is the most abundant inorganic compound? List its properties and circle the property that is most important when we sweat.
H= is the most abundant
water high heat vaporization
What are the building blocks if carbohydrates?
Name the 3 hexose simple sugars.
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
All enzymes are proteins.
The substance on which an enzyme acts is called a
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What are the building blocks of lipids?
Name the three types of lipids.
Neutral fats or triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids
What are the four structural levels of proteins? Give a brief description of each.
Primary- Polypepide is aligner sequence of AC
Secondary - Alpha helix & beta sheets coiled or linked to primary sheet.
Tertiary- 2nd structure fold upon another & form globular
Quaternary- 2 more polypeptide tertiary structures aggregate together.
What is the difference between peroxisomes and lysosomes?
Peroxisomes-Neutralize dangerous radicals & detoxify harmful toxic substances.
Lysosomes-Digest ingested bacteria, viruses & toxins destroy cell in injured tissues.
what is smooth ER?
Catalyze reactions (no role in protein synthesis)
What are the two major classes of nucleic acids?
DNA & RNA
The structural unit of nucleic acids are
List the 3 components nucleotides are composed of.
1. Nitrogenous Base- Purines & pyrimidines
2. 5 carbon sugars- Ribose & deoxribose
3. Phosphate group
List the 5 types of nucleotides and match up the base pairs. Identify which are found in DNA and RNA.
Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Uracil (U)
DNA (A, T, G, C)
RNA (A, U, G, C)
Where is DNA located in the cell?
Where is RNA chiefly located in the cell?
The currency of the cell is
Define a gene.
Segment of a DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating one polypeptide chain.
Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion requires ATP.
A cell would crenate in a hypotonic solution.
mRNA, tRNA, & rRNA are all involved in protein synthesis.
The cleavage furrow is formed during cytokinesis.
What factors affect the rate of diffusion?
Particle size, temperature, concentration, distance
Describe a cell membrane structure and primary active transport using the following terms: Phospholipids, sodium ions, potassium ions, ATP, ADP, hydrolysis, ATPase, intracellular, and extracellular.
1. cytoplasmic Na+ binds to K+ pump (Na+low & K+high)
2. Na+ binding promotes hydrolysis of ATP
3. Phosphorylation causes pump to change shape expelling Na+ out.
4. Extracellular K+binds to the protein triggering release of the phosphate group.
5. Loss of the phosphate restores the protein original conformation.
6. Pump protein binds ATP, K+ is released, Na+site are receptive again the cycle repeats.
What is the definition of cytokinesis?
Division of the cytoplasm
What part of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
What are the phases of mitosis and what happens in each phase?
Prophase- Chromosome become visible, each with 2 chromatids jointed to centromere.
Metaphase- Are aligned at the equator of the centromere
Anaphase- Towards poles split at the chromosome pulled apart.
Telephase- Cytokineses ends and the rebuild begins again.
Define transcription and identify where in the cell they take place.
DNA information coded in mRNA takes place in the nucleus. ( inside the cell)
Define translation and identify where in the cell they take place.
mRNA decoded & takes place in the cytoplasm(outside the cell)
Define negative feedback mechanisms. Give examples of each.
NFB- Keeps our body in check/controlled. (Used most of the time)
EX: Body Temperature
what is rough ER?
Manufactures all secreted protein. (Protein synthesis)