PATHO RRD 1

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1

study of functions & processes that occur in body, mostly the NORMAL processes

Physiology

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the study of the underlying changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury

Pathophysiology

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"pathos"

suffering

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maintenance of constant conditions in the body’s internal environment

Homeostasis

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challenges to the body’s balance are sometimes called

stressors

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The return to homeostasis after being challenged by a stressor is called

compensation

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Cells must have constant supply of nutrients, H2O, O2, and exist in narrow pH & temperature range

Homeostasis

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Maintaining homeostasis is essentially a balancing act-- the body is always trying to “right itself” when homeostasis is challenged by changes.

Homeostasis

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Compensation is achieved by the body’s use of control mechanisms

compensatory mechanisms

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if you run out of available glucose between meals & can’t eat immediately, your body turns to the “back-up” system of

glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen, a form of glucose)

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the failure to compensate, adapt, heal, etc.

decompensation

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is a harmful condition of the body (and/or mind)

disease

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a disturbance in the healthiness of the body

disorder

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a collection of symptons

syndrome

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factors that or contribute to and/or increase probability that a dz will occur …”setting the stage”

risk factors

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heredity, age, ethnicity, lifestyle (smoking, eating habits, etc), environment

risk factors

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a condition or event that triggers a pathologic event or disorder ….the “kick-off”

precipitating factor

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the cause of a disease; includes all factors that contribute to development of dz

etiology

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dz with unidentifiable cause

idiopathic

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occurs as result of medical treatment

iatrogenic problem

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results as consequence of being in hospital environment

nosocomial problems

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the demonstration of the presence of a sign and/or symptom of a disease

Clinical manifestation

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manifestations that can be objectivley identified by a trained observer

signs

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subjective manifestations that can only be reported by the person experiencing them---pain, nausea, fatigue

symptoms

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When S&S dissapear or diminish

remissions

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Periods when S&S become worse or more severe

exacerbations

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the predicted outcome of a dz based on certain factors

prognosis

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two or more coexisting medical conditions; this increases chance of poor prognosis

presence of comorbidities

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aftermath of disease: any abnormal condition that follows and is the result of disease, injury, or treatment; complications

sequela

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a disease caused by abnormalities in an individual's genetic material

genetic disorders

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combination of environmental triggers and variations/mutations of genes, plus sometimes inherited tendencies

multifatorial genetic disorders

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any influence that can cause congenital defects. eg-drugs, raditaion, viruses

teratogenic disorders

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abnormalities that are either detectable at birth and/or can be attributed to fetal development "glitches"

congenital defects

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Movement of water between compartments (plasma vs interstitial vs cell)

Osmosis/ruled by osmolality

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Normal tonicity (salinity) of the blood is

0.9%

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if tonicity of blood is higher than 0.9%, the patient is

hypertonic and/or hyperosmolar

3%

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if the tonicity of blood is lower than 0.9%, the patient is

hypotonic and/or hypoosmolar 0.45%

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An adjective that we use for normal tonicity is

isotonic

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pressure exerted by all the solutes in a compartment

osmotic pressure

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exactly the same principal as osmotic pressure, but refers specifically to protein molecules

oncotic pressure