CHAPTER 5 MICRO

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Microbiology
Chapter 5
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1

Energy yielding series of reactions

Catabolism

2

Means "whole enzyme"

Holoenzyme

3

A nonprotein component of an active enzyme

Coenzyme

4

A measure of the rate of activity of an enzyme

Turnover number

5

A protein portion of an enzyme, inactive without a cofactor

Apoenzyme

6

A group of enzymes that function as electron carriers in respiration and photosynthesis

Cytochromes

7

A mechanism by which fatty acids are degraded

Beta Oxidation

8

Fermentation test

Durham tube

9

Both the carbon source and energy source are usually the same organic compound

Chemoheterotroph

10

Photosynthetic, but uses some organic material rather than carbon dioxide as a carbon source

Photoheterotroph

11

The photosynthetic purple non sulfur bacteria would be classified in this nutritional group

Photoheterotroph

12

Photosynthetic bacteria that uses carbon dioxide as a carbon source

Photoautotroph

13

Changes the shape of the active site of an enzyme

Noncompetitive Inhibitor

14

Very similar in shape or chemistry to the normal enzyme substrate

Competitive Inhibitor

15

Hexose monophosphate shunt

Pentose phosphate pathway

16

The final electron acceptor is oxygen

Aerobic respiration

17

Produces important intermediates that act as precursors in the synthesis of nucleic acids and so on.

Pentose phosphate pathway

18

Bacteria use oxygen substitutes such as nitrates

Anaerobic respiration

19

Pyruvic acide accepts electrons and is turned into various end-products, such as lactic acid or ethanol

Fermentation

20

Glucose to pyruvic acide

Glycolysis

21

Electrons are removed from an organic compound and are transferred by an electron transport chain to oxygen.

Oxidative phosphorylation

22

An electron is liberated from chlorophyll and passes down an electron transport chain.

Photophosphorylation

23

A dehydrogenase conenzyme derived from nicotinic acid (niacin)

NAD+

24

A dehydrogenase coenzyme derived from riboflavin

FMN

25

In chemiosmosis, protons can diffuse across a membrane only through special channels that contain this enzyme.

ATP synthase

26

Pyruvic acid loses carbon dioxide to form an acetyl group

Decarboxylation

27

Glycolysis

Embden-Meyerhof

28

A photosynthetic organism that does not produce oxygen.

Anoxygenic

29

Removal of electrons

Oxidation

30

Uses an inorganic source of energy such as ammonia or elemental sulfur

Chemoautotrophic

31

A chemoheterotroph that lives on dead organic matter is called a(n) __________

Saprophyte

32

When an enzymes active site is occupied at all times by substrate or product molecules, it is called __________

Saturated

33

Cyanide is an example of a general type of inhibitor called _________

Noncompetitive

34

Sulfa drugs are an example of a type of inhibitor called ___________

Competitive

35

In ____________ phosphorylation, no oxygen or other inorganic final electron acceptor is required.

Substrate-level

36

Cyanobacteria produce _______ gas, just as do higher plants.

Oxygen

37

The amount of ATP yield from aerobic respiration by a prokaryote is ________.

38

38

The amount of ATP yield from glycolysis is ______.

2

39

The removal of NH2 from an amino acid is called __________

Deamination

40

The removal of -COOH from an amino acid is called __________.

Decarboxylation

41

The substance acted upon by an enzyme is called the ___________.

Substrate

42

Coenzyme A is a derivative of the B vitamin __________ acid.

Pantothenic

43

A sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell is called a _________ pathway.

Metabolic

44

Glucose is usually broken down to pyruvic acid by _______.

Glycolysis

45

In aerobic respiration, pyruvic acide is converted to acetyl __________; this product can then enter the Krebs cycle.

coA

46

DNA and RNA are made up of repeating units called __________.

Nucleotides