Exam 1 (Ch 1, 2, 4)

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1

Strepto

chains of cells

2

Bacillus

rod shaped cells

3

Biogenesis

life comes from pre-existing life

4

Parasitology

the study of parasites

5

Spirillum

spiral shaped cells

6

Vaccination

artificial exposure to a weakened pathogen, killed pathogen or a piece of a pathogen to give your immune system help with learning

7

Naked

this virus is composed of only a genome and a protein coat

8

Mycology

the study of fungi

9

Microorganisms

living and non-living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye

10

Dinoflagellates

algae that cause red tides

11

Heterotrophs

eater of others

12

Helminths

another name for worms

13

Bacteriology

the study of bacteria

14

Prokaryotic

the smaller and simpler of the two major types of cells

15

Parasite

this type of organism enters into a relationship with another organism (the host) and harms that host in the process

16

Peptidoglycan

this is a molecule that makes up the bacterial cell wall

17

Diatoms

algae that found in toothpaste

18

Pasteurization

using high heat for a short amount of time to kill off a lot of the spoilage microbes without damaging the product

19

Eukaryotic

the type of cell that has organelles

20

Immunology

the study of the immune system

21

Binary Fission

the process by which bacterial cells divide

22

Immunity

the ability to ward off disease, protection

23

Staphylo

clusters of cells

24

Chitin

this molecule makes up the fungal cell wall

25

Pathogen

a disease causing microbe

26

Coccus

spherical shaped cells

27

Halophile

a salt-loving organism

28

Asepsis

without contamination

29

Pasteur

proved microbes are present in the air

30

Virology

the study of viruses

31

Ten

percentage of microbes that are actually disease causing. Less than __ percent.

32

Capsid

the protein coat that protects the viral genome

33

Hydrophobic

molecules that are non polar and don't interact with water

34

Monosaccharide

the monomer of carbs

35

Chitin

an example of a carb that makes up the cell wall of fungi

36

Dehydration Synthesis

the process by which the macromolecules are made

37

Anabolism

the type of metabolism that forms covalent bonds (biosynthesis)

38

Polysaccharide

the polymer of carbs

39

Amino Acids

the monomer of proteins

40

ATP

a nucleic acid that is the universal energy currency of the cell

41

Polymers

many units

42

Electronegativity

affinity for electrons

43

Phospholipid

the type of lipid that makes up most of the cell membrane

44

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions in the cell

45

Catabolism

the type of metabolism where bonds are broken and energy is released

46

Base

a substance that removed protons or adds OH- to the solution

47

Valence

the name of electrons found in the outermost energy level

48

Cholesterol

used in eukaryotic cell membrane for structural integrity. It is not found in most prokaryotic cell membranes.

49

Hydrolysis

the process by which the macromolecules are broken down

50

Triglyceride

used for long term energy storage in us

51

Cellulose

an example of a carb that makes up the cell wall of algae

52

Nucleotide

the monomer of nucleic acids

53

Hydrogen

the type of bond that is based upon partial charges. they are weak by themselves but strong in numbers.

54

Polypeptide

the polymer of proteins

55

Peptide

the bond that forms between two amino acids

56

Hydrophilic

molecules that are polar or charged that can be dissolved in water

57

Potential

the type of energy that electrons possess that is biologically important

58

Acidic

a pH less than 7

59

Ionic

the type of bond that is due to a charge based attraction

60

Polar

the type of bond where there is unequal sharing of electrons

61

Basic

a pH greater than 7

62

Covalent

type of bond that involves the sharing of electrons

63

Nonpolar

the type of bond where there is equal sharing of electrons

64

Acid

a substance that adds protons to a solution

65

Lipid A

the toxin in the gram negative's outer membrane

66

Endospore

a survival structure

67

Diplococcus

an arrangement where there are a pair of spherical cells

68

Selective Toxicity

hopefully killing them without killing your cells

69

Genome

the blueprint of life

70

Nucleus

organelle that stores and protects the genome

71

Passive

the type of transport that doesn't require any energy from the cell

72

Alcohol

the decolorized in Gram staining

73

Mycoplasma

many of these are pathogenic. they are a type of bacterial cell that lacks a cell wall. their colonies look like sunny side up eggs.

74

Cytosol

the fluid inside of the cell membrane

75

Hydrophobic Exclusion

the force that stabilized the tail to tail orientation of the cell membrane

76

Crystal Violet

the primary stain in Gram staining

77

Pilus

protein fiber used for mating

78

Glycocalyx

a sugary coating that can be used for attachment or protection

79

Binary Fission

the process by which bacteria divide

80

Positive

the type of cell that has a thick cell wall. Gram ____.

81

Phospholipids

the macromolecule that makes up most of the membrane

82

Osmotic Lysis

the major role of the cell wall is to prevent this

83

Peripheral

the type of protein that is found on the side of the membrane

84

Lysosome

a vesicle that contains digestive enzymes

85

Negative

the type of cell that has a thin cell wall and an outer membrane

86

Conjugation

bacterial mating

87

Hypertonic

cell=25, pond water=2. the cell is ___ compared to the pond water.

88

Mitochondria

organelle in which the Kreb's cycle occurs

89

Cytoplasm

the region inside of the cell membrane

90

into

cell=25, pond water=2. water will flow ___ the cell.

91

Hypotonic

cell=25, pond water=200. the cell is ____ compared to the salted meat.

92

Plasmid

an extrachromosomal piece of DNA that can carry the information for antibiotic resistance mating

93

Iodine

the mordant in Gram staining

94

Pinocytosis

cell drinking

95

Phagocytosis

cell eating

96

Seventy

the size of the prokaryotic ribosome ___S

97

Taxis

movement

98

Fimbriae

proteins fibers used for attachment

99

Safranin

the secondary stain in Gram staining

100

Ribosome

the machine that makes proteins. it is also a major target of antibiotics

101

Golgi

sorting and distribution organelle

102

Eighty

the size of the eukaryotic ribosome ___S

103

Diffusion

the force behind passive transport

104

Integral

type of protein that sticks into the membrane

105

Active

if the concentration of a nutrient is 5 outside of the cell and 20 inside of the cell, what type of transport would be necessary to import the nutrient into the cytoplasm?