Microbiology Test 1

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Microbiology
Chapters 1, 3, 4
Kankakee Community College -Ling
updated 3 years ago by jnnicolas
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1

What is Microbiology?

Study of Microorganisms

2

Robert Hooke

1665- first person to describe a cell

3

Antoni VonLeeWenhook

1673-developed the first simple microscope

4

Golden Age of Microbiology

1857-1914 Laid the foundation of Microbiology

5

Louis Pasteur

Father of Microbiology.

6

Fermentation

1876, Louis Pasteur- yeast/bacteria convert sugar into alcohol in the absence of air.

7

Spontaneous Generation

Rudolph Virchow

8

Biogenesis

1860's, Rudolph Virchow-all living things come only from pre-existing living things

9

Disproved Spontaneous Generation

1861- Louis Pasteur

10

Pasteurization

1864, Louis Pasteur- supply just enough heat to kill the microbes

11

Germ Theory of Disease

1860's. Louis Pasteur

12

Joseph Lister

1860's, 1st person to test the Germ Theory of Disease. Used carbolic acid on his patients wounds

13

Robert Koch

1876, Koch's Postulates- determine the cause of disease

14

Edward Jenner

1796 small pox/cow pox

15

Who termed the name Vaccination

Louis Pasteur. Vacca means cow in Latin

16

Paul Ehrlich

1890's Theory of Immunity

17

Alexander Fleming

1914- accidentally discovered the first antibiotic

18

Major groups of Microbes

Bacteria. Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Virus, Multicellular animal parasites, Prions

19

Bacteriologist

person who studies bacteria

20

Oldest living organisms on the planet

Bacteria

21

Unicellular Prokaryotes

Bacteria

22

Eubacteria has a cell wall made up of

Peptidoglycan

23

archaea meaning

ancient

24

shapes of bacteria

rods, coccus, spiral, star, squares

25

arrangements of bacteria

single, pair, clusters, chains

26

reproduction of bacteria

mostly binary fission

27

nutrition of bacteria

most use organic molecules. some use inorganic molecules. and some use photosynthesis(first to appear on the earth)

28

movement of bacteria

flagella and cilia

29

mycologist

person who studies fungi

30

3 area of mycology

medical, agricultural, and ecological

31

unicellular, multicellular Eukaryotes

fungi

32

fungi's cell wall is made of

chitin

33

3 different types of fungi

yeast, mold, mushrooms

34

yeast

unicellular, oval in shape, larger than bacteria and they have a nucleus

35

mold

multicellular, grow in long filaments called hyphae

36

microscopic at least at one stage of their life

mold

37

once a mold is visible it's called

mycellium

38

reproduction of fungi

sexual or asexual

39

unicellular eukaryote

protozoa

40

cell wall of protozoa

atypical cell wall "pellicle" flexible outer coating

41

classified by means of locomotion

protozoa -flagella,cilia, pseudopods

42

reproduction of protozoa

sexual or asexual

43

photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes

algae

44

cell wall of algae

cellulose

45

reproduction of algae

sexual and/or asexual

46

study of virus's

virology

47

what is a virus

acellular, nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. either DNA or RNA, never both.

48

reproduction of a virus

not capable of reproduction. they need a host

49

multicellular animal parasites

Helminths-flatworms, roundworms, intestinal parasites. one stage of their life they are microscopic which is usually when we injest them.

50

what is a prion

protein molecule

51

Naming and Classification

Taxonomy, Latin - 1735, Carolus Linneaus

52

Effects of Bacteria

pathogenic(minority), decomposition-decompose our food(minority), benefits to humans(majority)

53

what are the benefits of bacteria

recyclers, bioremediation, genetic engineering

54

Normal Microbiota

"flora" microorganisms living on or in the body that are not pathogenic

55

Infectious Disease

a pathogen has to invade a host

56

what is the leading cause of death worldwide?

Infectious disease. Malaria

57

what are the qualifications of an infectious disease

recent, newly discovered organism or changed, increasing in numbers

58

Name some Infectious Diseases

HIV/AIDS, SARS, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis (human form Cruetzfeld Jacob's Disease, Cryptosporidium, E. Coli, H5N1 (bird flu), H1N1, H3N2

59

What is Herd Immunity

if 95% of the community is vaccinated that means that the other 5% are protected against a disease.

60

What is the best resolution we can get with a Light Microscope?

0.2 micrometre

61

Refractive Index

the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to its velocity in a specified medium.

62

What is Darkfield Microscopy

Negative Image- cover up the condenser with an opaque disk

63

What is Phase Contrast Microscopy

2 distinct light sources, increase in resolution, visualize internal structure

64

What is Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)

2 light sources, each pass through a prism, color, 3 dimensional imaging

65

Electron Microscope

use electron beams, use electromagnets

66

Transmission Electron Microscope

resolution 2.5 nm, 100,000 magnification

67

Scanning Electron Microscope

20 nm resolution, 10,000 mag, surface anatomy

68

what is the purpose of staining the bacteria

increases the contrast

69

basic dyes are and include

positive ions (Cation) Crystal Violet, Methylene Blue, Safranin, Malachite Green

70

acid dyes are and include

Negative ions (anion) Congo Red, Nigrosin

71

bacteria have a pH of

7.0

72

what type of charge is the glass

positively charged

73

purpose of heat fixing a smear

kills bacteria, bacteria adheres to slide better

74

what is the purpose of a simple stain

it's used for shape and arrangements

75

Dyes used for simple stain

Methylene Blue 1 min.

76

in a gram stain the bacteria must be how old

18-24 hours

77

Dyes used for gram stain

Crystal Violet- 1 min

Gram's Iodine- 30 sec.

Acetone Alcohol-5 sec.

Safranin- 1 min.

78

purple stained bacteria mean

gram positive

79

pink stained bacteria mean

gram negative

80

Dyes used for Acid-Fast stain

carbofushion- 5 min.

Acid Alcohol- 10 sec.

Methylene Blue- 1 min.

81

acid fast stain- positive

red

82

acid fast- negative

blue

83

Dyes used for negative stain

drop of nigrosin

84

how old does bacteria have to be in order to do a spore stain

at least 72 hours old

85

Dyes used for a spore stain

Malachite green-7 min.

Safranin- 1 min.

86

Prokaryotes means

without a nucleus

87

Prokaryote Dimensions

0.2-2.0 um

88

Length of Prokaryotes

2.0-8.0 um

89

shapes of prokaryotes

rods, coccus, spiral, star, square, tetrads, sarcinae

90

arrangments of prokaryotes

single, pairs, clusters, chains

91

external cell wall structures

capsule (Glycocalyx, Slime Layer) mucous coating, neutral in charge and protects the prokaryote from phagocytosis

92

flagella of a prokaryote

spins on its long axis, like a propellor

93

Monotrichous

single flagella at the end of a bacterium

94

Lophotrichous

2 or more flagella at the end of a bacterium

95

Amphitrichous

2 or more flagella on both sides of the bacterium

96

Peritrichous

flagella all around the bacterium

highly motile ex. PV

97

Fimbrae

"sticky fingers" allows the bacterium to adhere to a surface, so they can stay in place, anchors them

98

pili

1-2 per cell, used for the transfer of DNA from one cell to another, "sex pili"

99

axial filaments

2 flagella that are embedded in the cell wall, they do not extend out of the cell wall, they run parallel to each other, spin on their long axis

100

purpose of a cell wall in a prokaryotes

prevent rupture

maintains cell shape

contribute to pathogenicity

anchor for external cell structures

site of antibiotic action

101

cell wall composition of a prokaryote

peptidoglycan NAG-NAM

102

cell wall composition of a gram + bacteria

many layers of peptidoglycan, NAG NAM, being held together by teichoic acid vertically and peptides horizontally

103

cell wall of a gram - bacteria

few layers of peptidoglycan, no teichoic acids, being held together mostly by phospholipids. cell wall is very thin, few peptidoglycan layers and its sandwiched between the two membranes (outer and inner membrane)

104

cell membrane of a prokaryote

lacks carbohydrates, can't do phagocytosis

105

cytoplasm of a prokaryote

80-90% water, lack cytoplasm, no membranous organelles, lack a cytoskeleton

106

Nuclear area of a prokaryote

bacterial chromosome "nucleoid" single circular double helix of DNA that is physically attached to the inner cell membrane

plasmids, 5-100 genes, tiny pieces of DNA

ribosomes (rRNA molecule) protein synthesis

70s (P) vs 80s (E)

107

sporulation

making a spore

*only occurs in some gram + bacteria

108

germination

return to its vegetative state

109

dimensions of a Eukaryote

diameter 10-100 um

110

flagella of a Eukaryotes

wave-like motion, like a sperm

111

cell wall of a eukaryotes:

animal cells

plants and Algae

fungi, yeast

protozoa

animal cells, no cell wall

plants and algae, cellulose

fungi, most NAG polysaccharide, yeast- glunan, manan

protozoa atypical cell wall "flexible coating"

112

cell membrane of a eukaryote

contain carbohydrates, capable of phagocytosis

113

cytopllasm of a eukaryotes

has a cytoskeleton, has organelles