Chapter 1

Helpfulness: +1
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1

health promotion

the active engagement in behaviors or programs that advance positive well-being

2

nutrition

the sum of the processes involved with the intake of nutrients as well as assimilating and using them to maintain body tissue and provide energy; a foundation for life and health

3

nutrition science

the body of science, developed through controlled research, that relates to the processes involved in nutrition internationally, clinically, and in the community.

4

dietetics

the management of the diet and the use of food; the science concerned with nutrition planning and the preparation of foods.

5

health

a state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being; relative freedom from disease or disability

6

six essential nutrients in the human body

1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

3. Fats

4. Vitamins

5. Minerals

6. water

7

essential nutrients

nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs.

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energy yielding nutrients

carbohydrates, fat, protein

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nonessential nutrient

a nutrient that can be manufactured in the body by mens of other nutrients. Thus, it is not essential to consume this nutrient regularly in the diet.

10

metabolism

the sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body by which it maintains itself and produces energy for its functioning; products of the various reactions are called metabolites.

11

kilocalorie

the general term calorie refers to a unit of heat measure, and it is used alone to designate the small calorie that is used in nutrition science and the study of metabolism is the large calorie or kilocalorie, which avoids the use of large numbers in calculations, a kilocalorie, which is composed of 1000 calories, is the measure of heat that is necessary to raise the temperature of 1000 g (1L) of water by 1degree C.

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Recommended intake of each energy yielding nutrient

carbohydrate: 45% to 65%

Fat: 20% to 35%

Protein: 10% to 35%

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glycogen

a polysaccharide; the main storage form of carbohydrate in the body, which is stored primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent in the muscle tissue.

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amino acids

the nitrogen- bearing compounds that form the structural units of protein; after digestion, amino acids are available for the synthesis of required proteins. (necessary for constructing and repairing body tissues)

15

dietary fiber

helps regulate the passage of food material through the gastrointestinal tract, and it influences the absorption of nutrients.

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optimal nutrition

a person receives and uses adequate nutrients obtained from a varied and balanced diet of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water.

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malnurtion

refers to a condition that is caused by an improper or insufficient diet. Includes undernutrition and over-nutrition

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Undernutrition

appears when nutritional reserves are depleted, and nutrient and energy intakes are not sufficient to meet daily needs or added metabolic stress.

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Over- nutrition

results from excess nutrient and/or energy intake over time

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Dietary reference Intakes (DRIs)

reference values for the nutrient intake needs of healthy individuals for each gender and age group.

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Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)

the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all healthy individuals in a group.

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MyPlate

a visual pattern of the current basic five food groups-- grains, vegetables, fruits, diary, and protein, arranged on a plate to indicate proportionate amounts of daily food choices

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preventative approach

identify and minimize risk factors

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traditional approach

attempts change when symptoms of illness or disease appear

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Basic Function of Food

  • provide energy
  • build tissue
  • regulate metabolic processes
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Carbohydrates

primary source for fuel heat and energy (4cals/gram)

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Fats

secondary storage from heat and energy (9cals/gram)

provide 20% to 35% of total kilocalories

28

Proteins

  • primary function= building tissue (4cal/gram); 10-35% of total kilocalories
  • source of energy when supply from carbohydrates and fats is insufficient; best use for structure, enzyme and hormone production, and fluid balance
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Vitam C

tissue building

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calcium and phosphorus

building and maintaining bone

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iron

essential part of hemoglobin in the blood

32

vitamins

function as coenzyme factors, components of cell enzymes in governing a chemical reaction during cell metabolism

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fatty acids

building blocks of lipids

promote transport of fat-soluble nutrients throughout the body

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Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)

Daily intake of nutrients that meet needs of almost all healthy individuals

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Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

Intake level that meets needs of half the individual in a specific group

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Adequate Intake (AI)

Used when not enough evidence to establish the RDA

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Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

Sets maximal intake unlikely to pose adverse health risks