fundamentals midterm exam

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chapters 5, 11-13, 17,29
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1

What is a theory

a group of concepts that form a pattern of reality

2

When a nursing theorists identifies a specific idea or action and then makes conclusions about general ideas, what type of reasoning are they using

inductive reasoning

3

What theory is based on the breaking down of whole things into parts and then learning how these parts work together as a whole

general systems theory

4

boundaries separate systems from each other and from their environments describes what?

characteristics of a system

5

According to eric eriksons developmental theory, psychosocial development is accomplished through what process

socialization

6

Of the 4 components in theories of nursing, what should be the focus of nursing

person

7

what theorist believed that a person is a biopsychosocial being who is basically good

sister callista roy

8

According to levines theory of nursing, nursing practice should focus on what?

the human and the complexity of his or her relationships with the environment

9

modern society's values and expectations best describes what

the environment in Orem's self care model

10

What are qualitative research methods

phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, historical

11

what are accurate guidelines when using quantitive research process

review related literature for information,
formulate hypotheses and variables,
Collect and analyse data from various sources, including people, literature, documents and findings

12

what are types of quantitive research

descriptive research, correlational research, experimental research

13

which theorist believes nursing is a therapeutic, interpersonal, and goal oriented process

hildegard peplau

14

which theorist believes that self care is a human need; self care deficits require nursing actions

dorothea orem

15

which theorist believes caring is the central theme of nursing care, nursing knowledge, and nursing practice

madeline leininger

16

what are key points in the general systems theory

the whole system is always greater than the sum of its parts.
systems are hierarchical in nature, and are composed of interrelated subsystems that work together to effect change.
a system communicates with and reacts to its environment through input and output

17

what kind of research involves the concepts of basic and applied research

quantitive

18

what are abstract impressions organized into symbols of reality

concepts

19

what theory describes the process by which living matter adjusts to other living things and to environmental conditions

adaptation

20

what is the patients right to agree knowledgeably, to participate in a study without coercion, or to refuse to participate without jeopardizing the care he/she will receive called

informed consent

21

nursing care that is supported by reliable research based evidence is called

evidence based practice

22

The action phase of a conceptual framework; a series of actions, changes or functions that bring about a desired goal is called

process

23

what do you call the study of wisdom, fundamental knowledge, and the process used to develop and construct our perceptions of life

philosophy

24

a set of interacting elements, all serving the common purpose of contributing an overall goal

system

25

differentiates nursing from other disciplines and activities in that it serves the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling desired outcomes of nursing care practice

nursing theory

26

abstract impressions from the environment organized into symbols of reality' describes objects, properties, and events and the relationships among them

concept

27

a statement that explains or characterizes an action, occurence, or event that is based on observed facts but lacks absolute or direct proff

theory

28

emphasizes relationships between the whole and the parts and describes how parts function and behave

general systems theory

29

defines a continuously occurring process that effects change and involves interaction and response

adaptation theory

30

outlines human growth as a predictable and orderly process beginning with conception and ending with death

developmental theory

31

what are 4 basic characteristics of nursing theories

*identify and define interrelated concepts specific to nursing and clearly state the relation between these concepts
*must be logical and use orderly reasoning and identify relations that developed using a logical sequence
* must be consistant with the basic assumptions used in development. should be simple and general
* should increase the nursing professions body of knowledge by generating research and should guide and improve practice

32

what is the name assigned to a drug by the manufacturer that first develops it

generic name

33

what organ are most drugs excreted through

kidneys

34

what act designated the US pharmacopeia and the national formulatory as offical standards of drugs and empowered the federal government to enforce these standards

Pure food and drug act

35

True or False. Upon admittance to a hospital, all patient medications from home should be sent home with the family or placed in safe keeping

T

36

what type of medication order would a physician prescribe for "as needed" pain medication

PRN order

37

A nurse suspects a drug he/she administered to a patient is in error. who is legally responsible for the error?

the nurse

38

what measurement system uses a grain as the basic unit of weight

apothecary

39

If a nurse is preparing medication for a patient and is called away to an emergency, what should he/she do?

lock the medication in a room and finish them when he/she returns

40

Before administering a drug to a patient, the nurse should identify the patient by doing what?

check the patients ID bracelet

41

what means of drug administration would be used in an emergency to achieve rapid absorption and quicker results

injection

42

what site is recommended for adults as a safe site for the majority of intramuscular injections

ventrogluteal

43

which age related factor would give a patient an increased possibility of drug toxicity?

decline in liver function and production of enzymes needed for drug metabolism

44

to convert 0.8grams to milligrams the nurse should do what?

move the decimal point 3 places to the right

45

Mr.Downs is given a dose of gentamycin and has an immediate reaction of hypotension, bronchospasm, and rapid,thready pulse. what would be the drugs of choice for this situation

epinephrine, antihistimines, and broncho dialators

46

mrs banks has an order for chloromycetin, 500 mg every 6 hours. the drug comes in 250mg capsules. what is the correct dosage

2 capsules

47

an oral medication has been ordered for Mr.moran who has a nasogastric tube in place. what nursing activity would increase the safety of medication administration

check the tube placement before administration

48

when giving an intramuscular injection using the z-track technique, what techniques should the nurse use

do not massage the site because it may cause infection

49

what are some influences of specific factors on the absorption of a drug

*injected medications are usually absorbed more rapidly than oral medications
*the unionized form of drugs is absorbed more readily
* acidic drugs are well absorbed in the stomach

50

what is a life threatening immediate reaction to a drug that results in respiratory distress, sudden sever bronchospasm, and cardiovascular collapse

anaphylactic reaction

51

what is any abnormal or peculiar response to a drug that may manifest itself by over response, under response, or a response different from the expected outcome

idiosyncratic effect

52

what occurs when the combined effect of two or more drugs acting simultaneously produces an effect that is less than that of each drug alone

antagonistic effect

53

what types of orders might a physician write?

*standing order to be carried out as specified until canceled by another order
* PRN order for pain
*single order to be carried out only once at a specific time

54

what factors should a nurse consider when administering medications to an older adult

a decline in liver function, a decline in enzyme production needed for drug metabolism

55

what actions would a nurse be expected to perform when instilling eyedrops correctly

wash hands and put on gloves
tilt the patients head back slightly if sitting or place the head on a pillow if lying down
Have the patient look up and focus on something on the ceiling

56

what actions would a nurse be expected to perform when instilling ear drops

*clean the external ear with cotton balls moistened with normal saline-solution
*straighten the auditory canal by pulling the cartilaginous portion of the pinna up and back in an adult and down and back in an infant or child under 3 years
*hold the dropper in the ear with it's tip above the auditory canal

57

what actions would a nurse be expected to perform when administering a subcutaneous injection correctly

*grasp and bunch the area surrounding the injection site or spread the skin at the site
*inject the needle quickly at an angle of 45 to 90 degrees
*after removing the needle, massage the area gently with the alcohol swab unless it is a subcutaneous heparin or insulin injection site

58

what are some components of a medication order

the full name of the patient
the date and sometimes the time when the order is written
the dosage of the drug stated in either the apothecary or metric system

59

what is a small solid dose of medication compressed or molded, may be any size or shape, or enteric coated

tablet

60

what is a powder or gel form of an active drug enclosed in a gelatinous container

capsule

61

what is a medication mixed with alcohol, oil, or soap which is rubbed on the skin

liniment

62

finely divided, undissolved particles in a liquid medium, should be taken before use

suspension

63

medication in a clear liquid containing water alcohol, sweeteners, and flavoring

elixir

64

an easily melted medication preparation in a firm base, such as gelatin, that is inserted into the body

suppository

65

drug particles in a solution for topical use

lotion

66

mixture of a powdered drug with a cohesive material, may be round or oval

pill

67

a drug dissolved in another substance

solution

68

single drug or mixture of finely ground drugs

powder

69

medication combined with water and sugar solution

syrup

70

tablet or pill that prevents stomach irritation

enteric coated