Public Speaking Chapter 16

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Chapter 16
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College: First year
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1

Methods of Persuasion 


Building credibility
Using evidence
Reasoning
Appealing to emotions

2

Credibility

audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic

3

Ethos

name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility

4

Factors of Credibility

Competence

how an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject

5

Factors of Credibility

Character

how an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience

6

Types of Credibility

Initial

credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak

7

Types of Credibility

Derived

...

8

Types of Credibility

Terminal

credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech

9

Tips for enhancing credibility

explain your competence
establish common ground with your audience
deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction

10

Logos

logical appeal of a speaker. the two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning

11

Evidence

supporting materials used to prove or disprove something

12

Reasoning

the process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence

13

Tips for using evidence

use specific evidence
use novel evidence
use evidence from credible sources
make clear the point of your evidence

14

Four Types of Reasoning

Reasoning from specific instances

Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion

15

Four Types of Reasoning

reasoning from principle

Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion

16

Four Types of Reasoning

causal reasoning

Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects

17

Four Types of Reasoning

analogical reasoning

Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.

18

Guidelines for Reasoning from specific instances

Avoid hasty generalizations
if your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument
reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony

19

Guidelines for Reasoning from principle

make sure listeners will accept your general principle
provide evidence to support your minor premise

20

Guidelines for Causal Reasoning

avoid the fallacy of false cause
do not assume that events have only a single cause

21

Guidelines for Analogical reasoning

above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alike

22

Fallacy

an error in reasoning

23

Hasty generalization

...

24

False cause

mistakenly assumes that because one even follows another, the first even is the cause of the second

25

Invalid analogy

which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike

26

Red herring

introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

27

Ad hominem

attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute

28

Either-Or

forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than who alternatives exist

29

Bandwagon

assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable

30

Slippery Slope

assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented

31

Emotional Appeals

appeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like