Block Two Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by Michelle_Perez
1,035 views
updated 5 years ago by Michelle_Perez
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

From superficial to deep, put the following meninges and their related spaces in the correct order

Dura Mater

Subdural space

arachnoid mater

subarachnoid space

pia mater

2

The space that lies between the dura mater and the periosteum of the vertebrae, and houses areolar connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose connective tissue is the ___________ space

Epidural

3

The tapering inferior end of the spinal cord is called the?

conus medullaris

4

This structure marks the official “end” of the spinal cord proper (usually at the level of the?)

first lumbar vertebrae

5

Inferior to this level, nerve roots collectively called the ________ project _____ from the spinal cord.

cauda equina; inferiorly

6

Within this “horse’s tail” is the ________. This is a thin strand of ______ that helps anchor the conus medullaris to the ______.

filum terminale; pia mater; coccyx

7

The most superior part of the spinal cord is the ____________ part.

Cervical

8

Serves as a communication route between left and right sides

Gray commissure

9

House cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons

Lateral horns

10

House cell bodies of somatic motor neurons

Anterior horns

11

House axons of sensory neurons and cell bodies of interneurons

Posterior horns

12

Anterior Rami

-Larger

-Innervates Limbs

-Innervate Anterior and Lateral portions of the trunk

-Form plexuses

13

Posterior Rami

-Smaller

-Innervates deep muscles of the back

-Innervates skin of the back

14

The area of the skin that is supplied with sensory innervation by a pair of spinal nerves is called a ___________.

Dermatome

15

Put the following events that occur in a reflex arc in the correct order.

-A sensory receptor detects a stimulus

-A sensory neuron conducts action potentials through the nerve to the spinal cord

-The sensory neuron synapses with an interneuron

-The interneuron synapses with a motor neuron

-The motor neuron conducts action potentials through the anterior root and spinal nerve to an effector organ

16

The simplest reflex; muscles contract in response to a stretch

Prevents contracting muscles from applying tension to tendons Golgi tendon reflex

Removes a body part from a painful stimulus

Response to a withdrawal reflex; causes extension of the opposite limb Crossed-extensor reflex

-Stretch reflex

-Golgi tendon reflex

-Withdrawal reflex

-Crossed-extensor reflex

17

Stepping on a piece of glass with the left foot will result in extension of the right leg to help maintain balance. This is an example of a(n) _____________ reflex.

contralateral

18

Which portion of a reflex arc is most likely to be located entirely within the central nervous system?

interneuron

19

Somatic Nervous System

-Voluntary Control

-Stimulates Skeletal muscle fibers

-one lower motor neuron

20

Autonomic Nervous System

-involuntary control

-two lower motor neurons

-innervates cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

21

Preganglionic axons are myelinated; postganglionic axons are unmyelinated ...
Uses only one neuron to reach target ...
Requires two neurons to reach target...
Only one synapse between the neuron and the target...
Conscious and unconscious regulation of skeletal muscle...
Unconscious regulation of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands...

-Autonomic nervous system

-Somatic motor nervous system

-Autonomic nervous system

-Somatic motor nervous system

-Somatic motor nervous system

-Autonomic nervous system

22

The cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons in the sympathetic division are located

in the lateral horns of the T1-L2 spinal cord segments.

23

Parasympathetic

-Digesting

-Defecation

-Diuresis

24

Sympathetic

-Running

-Stress

-Excitement

-Fight or Flight system

25

The pelvic splanchnic nerves are formed from branches of preganglionic parasympathetic axons housed within the ______ of the ____ spinal cord segments.

lateral gray regions; S2-S4

26

The pelvic splanchnic nerves innervate most of the

reproductive organs

27

One digestive organ innervated by the pelvic splanchnic nerve is the

large intestine

28

Which of the following are released from neurosecretory cells in the adrenal medulla as a result of sympathetic innervation?

-Epinephrine

-Norepinephrine

29

White Rami

-carry preganglionic sympathetic axons

-Associated with T1-L2 spinal nerves

-Similar to "entrance ramps"

-Myelinated

30

Gray Rami

-Carry postganglionic sympathetic axons

-connect to all spinal nerves

-similar to "exit ramps" from a highway

-Unmyelinated

31

The _____ are anterior to the vertebral column on the anterolateral surface of the aorta.

prevertebral ganglia

32

The paravertebral ganglia are also known as the

sympathetic trunk ganglia

33

These connect to form the left and right ___, which are anterior to the spinal nerves.

sympathetic trunks

34

If the neuron secretes acetylcholine, it is a(n) __________neuron.

If the neuron secretes epinephrine, it is a(n) __________ neuron.

cholinergic; adrenergic

35

Dual innervation describes a scenario in which a target organ has innervation from____.

If the divisions create opposite effects on the same target organ, it's called ___

If the divisions have complementary effects on the target organ or system, it's called cooperative innervation.

Since the parasympathetic division causes ____ and the sympathetic division causes _____, this is an example of antagonistic innervation.

-both division(s) of the ANS

-antagonistic innervation.

-cooperative innervation

-bronchoconstriction; bronchodilation

36

What systems are only innervated by the sympathetic nervous system?

-Most blood vessels

-Sweat glands in the trunk

-Arrector pili muscles in the skin

37

Autonomic reflexes enable the ANS to control what kinds of visceral functions?

-Smooth muscle contractions

-Secretion by glands

-Cardiac muscle contractions

38

Modality

the brain assumes that a signal from the olfactory epithelium must be for smell

39

Location

-Receptive field

-Concentration of receptors in a given area of skin

40

Intensity

-Firing frequency of sensory nerve fibers

-Number of nerve fibers firing

-Volume of sound

-Only the most sensitive receptors are stimulated by weak stimuli

41

Duration

-Changes in the firing frequency of sensory nerve impulses over time

-Tonic receptors

42

Large Receptive Field

-Detects general region of stimulus only

-Higher energy costs

43

Small Receptive Field

-Greater specificity of location

-More efficient use of surface area

-Lower energy cost

44

Tonic

-Respond continuously

-Sensitivity remains constant

-Nociceptors continuously detecting pain

-Inner ear cells detecting head position

45

Phasic

-Respond to change

-Sensitivity decreases over time

-Skin receptors detecting clothing

-Thermoreceptors adjusting to ambient temperature

46

Why is visceral pain sometimes localized incorrectly?

Visceral sensory neurons travel along the same pathway as many somatic sensory neurons.

47

Thoracic vertebrae

-Twelve vertebrae that articulate with ribs

-Costal facets articulate with ribs

-Rotation

48

Cervical vertebrae

-Seven vertebrae in the neck

-Contain transverse foramina

-Flexion & Lateral Bending

49

Lumbar vertebrae

-Five vertebrae in the low back

-Largest vertebrae

-Flexion & Lateral Bending

50

Sacrum

Five fused vertebrae

51

Coccyx

Four vertebrae comprising the "tailbone"

52

In which of the following regions does the spine form a lordosis?

-Cervical

-Lumbar

53

The jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the intervertebral discs is called the ______.

nucleus pulposus

54

Costal groove

Marks the path of nerves and vessels

55

Head of Rib

Articulates with vertebral bodies

56

Tubercle

Articulates with transverse costal facet

57

Angle

Where the shaft begins curving toward the sternum

58

Which of the following muscles is epaxial?

Erector spinae

59

What are the bilateral actions of the erector spinae muscles?

-Maintain posture

-Extend the vertebral column

60

Which are the muscles that elevate the ribs during inhalation?

-Serratus posterior superior

-External intercostals

61

The internally placed, dome-shaped muscle that forms a partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities is the _____.

Diaphragm

62

Severing the posterior ramus of a spinal nerve may result in

losing feeling from the skin of the back.

63

Ribs that join the sternum directly by costal cartilages are called

true ribs.

64

From superficial to deep, place the muscles of the abdominal wall in the correct order.

-External oblique

-Internal oblique

-Transversus abdominis

65

Which of the following muscle aponeuroses contribute to the posterior rectus sheath ABOVE the arcuate line?

-Internal Abdominal Oblique

-Transversus Abdominus

66

The abdominal wall muscle that forms the inguinal ligament is the

external oblique.

67

Direct Inguinal hernia

passes through medial to deep inguinal ring

68

Femoral inguinal hernia

passes through inferior to the inguinal ligament

69

Indirect inguinal hernia

passes through the deep inguinal ring

70

The hip bones include

the ilium, the ischium, and pubis.

71

Female Pelvis

-shallow lesser pelvis

-coccyx moveable and tilted posteriorly

-wide sacrum

-wide greater sciatic notch

72

Male Pelvis

-Pubic Arch less than 90 degrees

-heart shaped pelvic inlet

-narrow false pelvis

-round obturator foramen

73

If you palpate the bony projection on the lateral side of your wrist, just proximal to the thumb, what part of the radius are you feeling?

Styloid process

74

Which of the following features is the most proximal feature of the ulna?

Olecranon

75

The cords of the brachial plexus are named by their location with respect to the

axillary artery.

76

Which ligaments are associated with the glenohumeral joint?

-Coracoacromial ligament

-Coracohumeral ligament

-Glenohumeral ligament

77

The glenohumeral joint exhibits

a low level of stability but a wide range of motion.

78

A shoulder separation involves the rupture of the ________ joint

acromioclavicular

79

Check all of the muscles that flex the arm at the glenohumeral joint.

-Pectoralis major

-Deltoid (anterior fibers)

-Coracobrachialis

-Biceps brachii (long head)

80

Which of the following muscles are considered rotator cuff muscles?

-Supraspinatus

-Teres minor

-Subscapularis

-Infraspinatus

81

After an injury, a patient has difficulty contracting his deltoid muscle. This indicates possible damage to the ___________ nerve.

axillary

82

One of the weakest parts of the shoulder is the part that lacks tendons of the rotator cuff. This weak area is the ______ aspect of the shoulder.

inferior

83

Head of radius

articulates with the capitulum of the humerus

84

Glenoid fossa of scapula

articulates with the head of the humerus

85

Trochlear notch of ulna

articulates with the trochlea of the humerus

86

Olecranon of ulna

articulates with olecranon fossa of the humerus

87

Which ligament is responsible for holding the head of the radius in place?

Anular ligament

88

The main ligament supporting the lateral aspect of the elbow is the

radial collateral ligament.

89

When the radius and ulna appear crossed, the forearm is said to be in a __________________ position.

pronated

90

Nursemaid's Elbow is the name of the condition that occurs when what happens?

The radial head is disarticulated

91

Which muscles are innervated by the radial nerve?

-Triceps brachii

-Anconeus

-Supinator

92

Which of the following structures can be found in the cubital fossa?

-Brachial Artery

-Median Nerve

-Biceps brachii Tendon

93

The metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints are considered to be what class of synovial joint?

Condyloid

94

Many of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm work to _______ the wrist, and they have their origin on the _______ epicondyle of the humerus.

flex, medial

95

What are muscles that function to abduct the hand at the wrist.

-Extensor carpi radialis brevis

-Extensor carpi radialis longus

-Flexor carpi radialis

96

Extension of the interphalangeal joints

Lumbricals

97

The Lumbricals insert on which of the following tendons?

Extensor digitorum communis

98

The ligament that forms the roof of the carpal tunnel is called the _____ ______ ligament.

transverse carpal

99

Injury of the motor recurrent branch of the Median nerve can cause which of the following symptoms?

thenar wasting

100

Axillary Nerve innervation

-Deltiod

-Teres Minor

101

Median Nerve innervation

-Thenar Muscles

102

Radial Nerve innervation

-Triceps brachii

-brachioradialis

103

Ulnar Nerve innervation

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

104

Musculocutaneous Nerve innervation

-Biceps brachii

-Brachialis

105

Hand of Benediction (inability to flex first two fingers)

Median injury in the cubital fossa

106

Wrist drop (unable to extend wrist)

Radial nerve in the axilla

107

Erb palsy/Waiter's tip sign

Superior trunk of the brachial plexus

108

Parasthesia on medial side of the hand

Ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel