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1

Which of the following is not true of horizontal gene transfer?

  1. Hfr males have an integrated F plasmid, F+ males have a cytoplasmic F plasmid.
  2. In F+X F- mating the F- becomes F+.
  3. Hfr X F- matings lead to chromosomal transfer from the Hfr to the F-.
  4. Generalized transducing phages come from temperate phages.
  5. Competency is required for uptake of free DNA from solution and can be induced by electroporation.

D

2

Which of the following patterns of pathogenesis: (1). Adherence, (2). Colonization (Multiplication), (3). Exotoxin Production, (4). Invasion, (5). Invasion and Exotoxin Production, is characterized by Vibrio cholerae and ETEC?

  1. 1,2,3,4
  2. 1,2,3
  3. 1,2,4
  4. 1,2,5
  5. None of the above

B

3

Which of the following patterns of pathogenesis: (1). Adherence, (2). Colonization (Multiplication), (3). Exotoxin Production, (4). Invasion, (5). Invasion and Exotoxin Production, is characterized by Treponema, Borrelia and Leptospira?

  1. 1,2,3,4
  2. 1,2,3
  3. 1,2,4
  4. 1,2,5
  5. None of the above

C

4

Which of the following microscopic techniques::applications is mismatched?

  1. Darkfield::living spirochetes in wet mounts
  2. TEM::visualization of viruses and their morphologies
  3. SEM::microbe-microbe, and microbe-host surface interactions in “3-D”
  4. Phase contrast (or DIC phase)::internal ultrastructure of prokaryotes & eukaryotes
  5. Fluoresence::rapid specific detetection of microbes (antigens) or antibodies

D

5

Ways by which pathogens may antagonize host defenses include all of the following except:

  1. acquiring a mask of host antigens after penetrating the host.
  2. antigenic heterogeneity (e.g.,multiple O, K , and H antigens as in E. coli)
  3. capsules which are antiphagocytic.
  4. antigenic variation (like trypanosomes) during infection in a host.
  5. all of the above are true

E

6

Which of the following is mismatched regarding antimicrobials?

  1. Beta-lactam ring::Penicillins & Cephalosporins
  2. DNA gyrase::Quinolones & Fluoroquinolones
  3. 80S ribosome::Polyene & Imidazole Anti-Fungals
  4. 70S ribosome::Macrolides & Aminoglycosides
  5. PABA in folic acid synthesis::Sulfonamides

D

7

Which of the following is not true concerning B or T cells.

  1. CD8+ cells recognize peptides presented by MHCI.
  2. TCRs recognize 3D structural antigens or epitopes.
  3. CD4+ cells recognize peptides presented by MHC II.
  4. BCRs are membrane-bound versions of the specific antibody the B cell is programed to make.
  5. Potentially billions of BCRs can be generated by RAG gene rearrangements, random point mutations, deletions and insertions.

B

8

Which of the following patterns of pathogenesis: (1). Adherence, (2). Colonization (Multiplication), (3). Exotoxin Production, (4). Invasion, (5). Invasion and Exotoxin Production, is characterized by Staph food poisoning and Botulism in adults?

  1. 1,2,3,4
  2. 1,2,3
  3. 1,2,4
  4. 1,2,5
  5. None of the above

D

9

Which is not true of the algae?

  1. Certain dinoflagellates are responsible for “red tides” and fish kills.
  2. Toxins of red tides dinoflagellates cause paralytic shellfish poisoning.
  3. Includes cyanobacteria.
  4. Major consumers of carbon dioxide combating global warming.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

10

Which of the following is not true of PRRs, the pathogen recognition system of phagocytes?

  1. Some recognize DAMPs associated with cell damage.
  2. NOD-like receptors are located on the surface of phagocytes to detect pathogens before the cell membrane is breached.
  3. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is bound by a TLR (TLR-4) setting into play signaling pathways leading to proinflammatory cytokine production.
  4. RIG-like receptors are cytoplasmic proteins that detect viral RNA.
  5. Different TLRs detect various microbial components (flagellin, peptidoglycan, etc.)

B

11

Which of the following is not true of microbial pathogenesis?

  1. Horizontal gene transfer includes conjugation, transformation and transduction.
  2. Pathogenicity islands are regions of DNA coding for virulence factors and appear to have been acquired from other bacteria.
  3. The type III secretion system has an injectisome for “penetrating” host cells for delivery of effecter molecules or toxins, e.g., promoting membrane ruffling for entry of Salmonella.
  4. The A fragment of A-B toxins has enzymatic activity, e.g., adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) transferase activity in cholera, diphtheria, pertussis & ETEC LT toxins.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

12

Which of the following is not true concerning the immune system of your body?

  1. The sensors (“eyes and ears”) to detect pathogens include PRRs on cells.
  2. Cells of the immune system communicate (the “voice”) through cytokines.
  3. Chemokines attract phagocytic cells.
  4. Antibody production and cell mediated responses occur after exposure to antigens (epitopes).
  5. All of the above are true.

E

13

Which of the following statements about cell structure/function is false?

  1. O antigens are specific polysaccharide “whiskers” on the G- & G+ wall surface.
  2. Capsules can be visualized with negative stains and specific antibody (quellung reaction).
  3. The Domain Bacteria chromosome is circular and not complexed with histones.
  4. Storage inclusions may include glycogen, lipid, and PHB.
  5. H antigens are flagella and K antigens are capsules.

A

14

Which marker is found on all nucleated cells?

  1. MHC class I molecules
  2. MHC class II molecules
  3. CD4
  4. CD8
  5. T cell receptors

A

15

Which of the following is not a way that pathogens could antagonize the phagocytic defense mechanisms?

  1. Avoid recognition & attachment (e.g., M Proteins of GAS, Protein A of S. aureus)
  2. Escape the phagosome (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes).
  3. Promote acidification and formation of activated forms of oxygen within the phagosome.
  4. Prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion.
  5. Produce C5a peptidase preventing chemotaxis and thus encounter.

A

16

Which of the following is mismatched concerning the “two types of immunity” innate and adaptive?

  1. Adaptive::Specific response to microbe
  2. Innate::Has a memory component
  3. Innate::Includes “first line” of defenses
  4. Adaptive::Slower to respond
  5. Innate::Phagocytic cells

B

17

Which of the following are examples of antigen-presenting cells (APCs)?

(1- T cell, 2- Neutrophil, 3- B cell, 4- Macrophage, 5- Dendritic cell)

  1. 1, 2
  2. 1, 3, 5
  3. 2, 4
  4. 3, 4, 5
  5. 1, 2, 3

D

18

Which of the following is not an innate defense mechanism associated with the respiratory tract:

  1. Nose hairs, nasal and pharyngeal mucus.
  2. Mucociliary escalator.
  3. Complement and inflammatory responses.
  4. Alveolar macrophages.
  5. All of the above are innate defense mechanisms.

E

19

The cell walls of Fungi are made up of

  1. cellulose
  2. peptidoglycan
  3. pseudopeptidoglycan
  4. glucans, mannans and chitin
  5. liposaccharides

D

20

A young child presents at the emergency room of University Hospital in distress with a severe cough accompanied by respiratory whoops. The child’s history showed that the parents did not believe in immunizing their children, even though a vaccine for the causative disease agent is available. What organism is responsible?

  1. Rhinovirus or adenovirus.
  2. Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
  3. Bordetella pertussis.
  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  5. Streptoccus pneumoniae

C

21

After receiving a corneal transplant, a woman years later then developed dementia, tremors, loss of muscle control, and later became comatose and died. All cultures were negative. Serological tests were negative. Autopsy revealed spongioform degeneration of her brain. She most likely had:

  1. Rabies.
  2. Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.
  3. Kuru.
  4. Scrapie.
  5. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

B

22

A patient with nausea, projectile vomiting and diarrhea within 5 hours after eating the incriminated food most likely has:

  1. Shigellosis.
  2. Cholera.
  3. Staph food poisoning.
  4. Salmonellosis.
  5. E. coli gastroenteritis.

C

23

During maturation or function of immune cells associated with adaptive immunity, certain activities are associated with specificity of those cells or tolerance (prevention of autoimmunity); which of the following is not true?

  1. T cell progenitors undergo positive selection in the thymus for ability to bind MHC.
  2. B cell progenitors with BCRs that react with autoantigen (“self”) are eliminated (through apoptosis, editing, or anergy) in the bone marrow.
  3. T cell progenitors undergo negative selection in the thymus eliminating those reacting strongly with self peptides.
  4. B cells following binding of protein antigens “confirm” the foreign (not self) nature through interaction with a TH cell, and if foreign the TH cell will provide signals to the B cell for division and differentiation into antibody-producing plasma cells.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

24

Which of the following statements about phagocytosis is false?

  1. Phagocytes move toward an area of infection by a process termed chemotaxis.
  2. The vacuole in which the engulfed microbe is exposed to hydrolytic degradative enzymes is called a phagolysosome.
  3. Macrophages are more numerous than neutrophiles, arrive first and die after phagocytosing bacteria.
  4. Phagocytes have receptors that recognize complement protein bound to bacteria.
  5. Phagocytes have receptors that recognize antibody bound to bacteria.

E

25

Which of the following is not true of Streptococcus pyogenes?

  1. It is also called the beta hemolytic Group A strep.
  2. It causes pharyngitis/tonsillitis (strep throat) and scarlet fever.
  3. Certain of them are FEB (“flesh eating bacteria”) causing necrotizing fasciitis.
  4. If untreated, it may cause rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis.
  5. All of the above are true

E

26

Which of the following is not true of Gambierdiscus toxicus?

  1. It is a toxic dinoflagellate producing ciguatera.
  2. Associated with consumption of coral reef fish.
  3. It produces unusual sensations such as itching skin, aching teeth, numbness of mouth and lips, reversal of hot-cold sensations, etc.
  4. Symptoms may last for days, weeks, or months+.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

27

Which of the following is true of prions.

  1. They are destroyed by most proteases.
  2. They are destroyed by antiseptics and disinfectants.
  3. Abnormal prion protein involves a change from alpha helical to beta pleated sheet.
  4. They are destroyed by boiling.
  5. They are commonly diagnosed by antibody and cell mediated immune responses.

C

28

Which of the following statements about viruses is not true?

  1. Viruses contain either ds or ss DNA or RNA
  2. The nucleic acid is surrounded by a protein coat (capsid) composed of capsomeres.
  3. Viruses multiply inside living cells using viral ribosomes, mRNA, and tRNAs.
  4. Some viruses are enveloped, some are helical, polyhedral, or complex in morphology.
  5. Some viruses have enzymes.

C

29

Concerning protozoans and helminthes, which of the following is not true?

  1. Ingestion of the eggs of the pork tapeworm can cause systemic spread of larvae (cystercercosis) of the pathogen to the brain.
  2. Enterobius vemicularis is the giant intestinal roundworm associated with obstruction of the gut and bile ducts with “worm balls.”
  3. Trichomonas is protozoan that is responsible for vaginitis that generally is a STD.
  4. The practice of winding the “Guinea worm” on a stick for removal from cutaneous lesions was probably responsible for the symbol (Caduceus) of the medical profession.
  5. Giardia is a common cause of water-borne outbreaks of diarrhea and Cryptosporidium caused a huge outbreak of water-borne diarrheas in Milwalkee involving about ½ million people.

B

30

The variable regions of antibodies are located in the:

  1. Fc region.
  2. Fab region.
  3. Light chains alone.
  4. Heavy chains alone.
  5. Throughout the entire antibody monomeric structure

B

31

Which of the following epidemiological terms is not true?

  1. A nosocomial infection is one acquired in a hosptial.
  2. A disease constantly present in a population is epidemic.
  3. Sporadic refers to occasional occurrence at irregular periods.
  4. Reservoir is the site where the organism resides and multiplies.
  5. A carrier is a person in whom the organism is present, but has no symptoms.

B

32

The “cell-mediated helper cells” activating macrophages and aiding differentiation of CD8+ T cells into effector cells?

  1. TH17 cells.
  2. TH1 cells.
  3. T cytotoxic cells (TCLs).
  4. TH2 and Tfh cells.
  5. Treg cells.

B

33

Which of the following is not true of cytotoxic T (Tc or cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL) cells?

  1. They are CD4+
  2. They recognize peptides that are bound to MHC I proteins.
  3. They release perforin which makes pores in membranes.
  4. Granzymes pass through pores and activate pathways (enzymes) responsible for apoptosis and cell death.
  5. They can kill cancer cells and virus infected cells.

A

34

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are all of the following except:

  1. part of the pathogen recognition system on phagocytic cells.
  2. an example of adaptive immunity.
  3. recognize microbial components, triggering signals initiating events that lead to production of cytokines and enhanced host defenses, unless exagerrated.
  4. TLR-5 recognizes flagellin.
  5. TLR-4 recognizes endotoxin.

B

35

An effective target for neutralizing an A-B toxin would be

  1. an antibody that binds the A subunit of the toxin after it adheres to its receptor.
  2. an antibody that binds the A subunit of the toxin before it adheres to its receptor.
  3. an antibody that binds the B subunit of the toxin after it adheres to its receptor.
  4. an antibody that binds the B subunit of the toxin before it adheres to its receptor.
  5. all of the above would work equally.

D

36

Which of the following is not true of fungal infections?

  1. Coccidioides immitis is geographically distributed in the (southwestern) US and causes “Valley Fever” (“desert rheumatism”).
  2. Systemic fungal infections are generally acquired from other people.
  3. Dermatophyte infections are called tineas (tinea pedis, tinea cruis, tinea capitis, etc.).
  4. Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum are examples of dermatophytes.
  5. Antifungals often target ergosterol in the fungal membrane.

E

37

Which of the following is not true of microbial pathogenesis?

  1. The Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) is a syringe-like injectisome.
  2. Staphylokinase and DNase stop spread of S. aureus
  3. In rheumatic fever, heart and valve cells coated with antibody are attacked by NK cells (ADCC) and through the MAC of classical complement activation.
  4. UPEC that cause urinary tract infections have special adhesins (e.g., Type 1 and P fimbriae).
  5. In acute glomerulonephritis, antigen-antibody complexes are deposited in nephrons.

B

38

Which of the following is not true of Koch’s postulates?

  1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.
  2. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture.
  3. The disease must be transmitted from a diseased animal to a susceptible animal by direct contact.
  4. The pathogen must be isolated in pure culture from the experimentally infected animal with the disease.
  5. All of the above are true.

C

39

Which of the following diseases was associated with ritualistic cannibalism?

  1. Scrapie.
  2. Flesh eating bacteria.
  3. Kuru.
  4. Creutzfeld Jacob disease.
  5. Bovine spongioform encephalopathy.

C

40

Which of the following is not true of helper T (TH) cells?

  1. They are CD4+
  2. They recognize peptides that are bound to MHC II proteins.
  3. TH cells can participate in humoral immunity.
  4. TH cells can provide a helper function in cell-mediated immunity.
  5. All of the above are true

E

41

The stimulation of B cells (i.e., through certain cytokines) to divide (clonal expansion) and mature into antibody producing plasma cells generally is provided by:

  1. TH17 cells.
  2. macrophages.
  3. T cytotoxic cells.
  4. TH2 and Tfh cells.
  5. TH1 cells.

D

42

All of the following are frequent complication of untreated gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in women except:

  1. babies born with severe birth defects from infection in utero.
  2. ectopic pregnancies.
  3. pelvic inflammatory disease.
  4. decreased fertility.
  5. All of the above are frequent complications of both.

E

43

Which of the following is not true.

  1. The 4 chains of an antibody molecule are held together by disulfide bonds.
  2. Oxygen dependent killing mechanisms of phagocytes include cationic proteins, lysosomes, and lysozyme.
  3. Basophils and mast cells have receptors for Fc of IgE.
  4. After sensitization (production of antibody and binding to mast cell and basophils), subsequent exposure to the antigen causes cross-linking and release of vasoactive mediators responsible for immediate hypersensitivity (hay fever, asthma, bee sting).
  5. Eosinophilia is often associated with certain worm infections.

B

44

A vaccine for lobar pneumonia (Pneumovax) contains about 25 of the most common capsular polysaccharides of the predominant pneumococci involved. However, the capsular vaccine (Prevnar) given to young children for otitis media and other pneumococcal disease contains the predominant capsular types of pneumococci involved conjugated to protein. Which of the following is not part of the rationale for the difference in the composition of the vaccines.

  1. Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are T-independent antigens.
  2. Conjugation of polysaccharide with protein makes the response T-cell dependent.
  3. Young children are incapable of making antibodies (any antibody to anything).
  4. Conjugation with protein makes polysaccharide vaccines more effective in children.
  5. Hemophilis influenzae type b vaccine is another capsule vaccine for children that is conjugated with protein.

C

45

Which of the following is not true of your immune system?

  1. The tuberculin test is an example of delayed hypersensitivity (with induration because of influx of sensitized T cells and macrophages).
  2. Type I interferons (INFalpha & INFbeta) lead to antiviral activities.
  3. Three (Types I-III) of the four general types (I-IV) of hypersensitivity are antibody mediated.
  4. Apoptosis is cell death triggering (causing) inflammation.
  5. Stem cells differentiate to B cells in the bone marrow and T cells in the thymus.

D

46

The four primary signs of inflammation are:

  1. flare, wheals, fever, cough
  2. rash, pus, heat, redness
  3. heat, pain, vesicles, fever
  4. redness, heat, swelling, pain
  5. pus, redness, swelling, and pain

D

47

Which of the following is not true of Streptococcus pneumoniae?

  1. It is Gram positive.
  2. It is the main cause of lobar pneumonia.
  3. It causes otitis media. and many visits to the pediatrician.
  4. It is Beta hemolytic.
  5. The capsule is the major virulence factor.

D

48

Which of the following is not true of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis?

  1. Certain serovars cause lymphogranuloma venerum, a rare but serious STD.
  2. It the most frequent pathogen infecting humans in the world.
  3. It is the most common cause of preventable blindness (trachoma).
  4. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen transmitted by contact.
  5. It has a complex life cycle with external elementary bodies and intracellular replicating reticulate bodies.

B

49

Which is not true about superantigens?

  1. They are a type of exotoxin.
  2. They stimulate many T cells by “clamping onto” (cross linking) the APC MHC II-T cell receptor complex.
  3. They act through cytokines like IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha.
  4. They are very large epitopes that stimulate B cell proliferation and lots of protective antibody against the superantigen.
  5. They have symptoms similar to endotoxin.

D

50

C3b is involved in

  1. enhancement of phagocytes by opsonization.
  2. interferon production.
  3. antibody production.
  4. inflammation.
  5. the membrane attack complex.

A

51

Toll-like receptors are likely to be triggered by all of the following except?

  1. peptidoglycan and flagellin
  2. glycolysis and Krebs (TCA cycle) intermediates
  3. LPS
  4. bacterial and viral nucleic acids
  5. All of the above would trigger TLRs

B

52

All of these result directly from the activation of complement except:

  1. chemotaxins that attract phagocytic cells
  2. byproducts that elicit an inflammatory response
  3. antibody synthesis
  4. a membrane attack complex that can lyse bacteria
  5. opsonin production that promotes phagocytosis

C

53

Which of the following is not a mechanism by which phagocytes kill, inhibit or digest engulfed bacteria?

  1. lysosomal enzymes
  2. hydrogen peroxide
  3. catalase and superoxide dismutase
  4. lysozyme and lactoferrin
  5. hypochlorite, superoxide anions, and nitric oxide

B

54

Which of the following is not true concerning carbon flow in the different pathways of energy-yielding metabolism?

  1. Carbon flow is from organic compounds to carbon dioxide in aerobic metabolism.
  2. Carbon flow is from organic compounds to fermentation products in the anaerobic process of fermentation.
  3. Carbon flow is from organic compounds to carbon dioxide in anaerobic respiration.
  4. Carbon flow is from carbon dioxide to organic compounds in lithotrophic (chemoautolithotrophic) metabolism.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

55

Which of the following plays a negative role in (promoting) autoimmunity:

  1. TH17 cells.
  2. TH2 cells.
  3. T cytotoxic cells.
  4. Tfh cells.
  5. TH1 cells.

A

56

Which of the following is mismatched?

  1. Bubonic & pneumonic plague::Yersinia pestis
  2. Coagulase::clots plasma
  3. Hemolysins:: release hemoglobin (& iron) from RBCs
  4. Siderophores::hydroxamates & phenolates that remove iron from transferrin & lactoferrin
  5. None of the above.

E

57

Which of the following is not an intoxication?

  1. Botulism
  2. Salmonella gastroenteritis
  3. Mushroom poisoning
  4. Shellfish poisoning (red tide)
  5. Staph food poisoning

B

58

Which of the following is not true of the mycobacteria?

  1. Mycobacterium is a problem in patients with AIDS.
  2. Mycobacteria are generally the most resistant bacteria next to endospores.
  3. Mycobacteria are among the smallest bacteria and pass through bacterial filters.
  4. The tuberculin test is a classical example of a delayed (Type IV) hypersensitivity reaction.
  5. All of the above are true.

C

59

Which of the following is not true of types of infections?

  1. Infection is synonymous with disease.
  2. Opportunistic infections are caused by normal or transient microbiota when misplaced.
  3. Peritoneal abscesses caused by Bacteroides are an example of a mixed infection.
  4. Acute infections have a rapid onset and brief duration.
  5. Pneumococcal pneumonia following influenza is an example of a secondary infection.

A

60

Which of the following is not true concerning obligate intracellular parasties?

  1. rickettsia are arthropod borne.
  2. viruses are single-cell organisms.
  3. Rickettsia prowazekii causes typhus and is a select agent.
  4. cell-mediated immunity generally is most important in control.
  5. all of the above are true.

B

61

Which of the following does not pertain to Borrelia burgdorferi?

  1. ticks
  2. Lyme disease
  3. spirochete
  4. axial filaments
  5. all of the above are true of this organism

E

62

Results of antigen-antibody binding include all of the following except:

  1. Opsonization.
  2. Neutralization.
  3. Lysis through activation of complement via the alternate and MBL pathways by IgG and IgM.
  4. Agglutination.
  5. Antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

E

63

Which of the following is not true of ETEC?

  1. They are certain types of coli.
  2. They produce disease through ST and LT.
  3. They cause Traveler’s diarrhea
  4. LT acts like cholera toxin.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

64

Which of the following is true of EHEC?

  1. They produce attaching and effacing lesions via a T3SS.
  2. They cause hemorrhagic colitis with a bloody diarrhea.
  3. They produce disease through Shiga (Shiga-like) toxin.
  4. They may produce hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).
  5. All of the above are true.

E

65

On a vacation at a Caribbean beach resort in Haiti, you experience vomiting followed by severe diarrheal symptoms that make you extremely weak and lethargic. You are taken to the hospital in a semi-conscious and very dehydrated state, and even though you don’t speak French, you think the doctor is talking about “rice water stools”, and mentions a Gram negative motile organism. You are placed on rehydration therapy which allows you to recover. You know that the likely cause of this infection was:

  1. Salmonella enteritidis
  2. Vibrio cholerae
  3. Shigella dysenteriae
  4. EPEC
  5. Staphylococcus aureus

B

66

Which of the following is not true of vaccines?

  1. May be killed bacteria or inactivated viral.
  2. May be capsules or other subcellular components.
  3. May be live attenuated organisms (or attenuated viruses).
  4. May be toxoids.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

67

All of the following are mechanisms for evading host defenses except for:

  1. Antigenic heterogeneity and variation
  2. Acquisition of a mask of host antigens
  3. Adhesins
  4. Capsules
  5. All of the above are true.

C

68

Which of the following is not true of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

  1. It has a very low infectious dose.
  2. A large percentage of the world population is infected.
  3. It is cultivable in vitro.
  4. A positive tuberculin test indicates past infection, current infection, or BCG immunization.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

69

Which of the following is not true of Mycobacterium leprae?

  1. It is the cause of leprosy.
  2. The armadillo is an animal model for the disease.
  3. It is cultivable in vitro.
  4. It, like tuberculosis is acid fast.
  5. All of the above are true.

C

70

Which of the following is not true of Candida albicans?

  1. It is a fungus.
  2. It is a yeast.
  3. It is a common cause of vaginitis.
  4. It causes oral thrush in infants and oral thrush and esophagitis in AIDS patients.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

71

Which of the following is not true of Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. It is found in the carrier state commonly in the nose.
  2. It is coagulase positive.
  3. MRSA and VRSA.
  4. It can produce toxic shock syndrome which was first observed in females using a new brand of highly absorbent, long use tampons.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

72

Which of the following statements about botulinum toxin is not correct.

  1. It binds to nerve synapses.
  2. It blocks the release of acetylcholine from the nerve cells.
  3. Impulses are not transmitted.
  4. Spastic paralysis is produced.
  5. All of the above are true.

D

73

Which of the following is not true of pathogenic vibrios?

  1. Vibrio parahemolyticus causes gastroenteritis associated with uncooked or partially cooked seafood.
  2. They are Gram negative, curved (comma shaped) rods.
  3. Pathogenic Vibrios are isolated on TCBS agar.
  4. Vibrio vulnificus causes an invasive life-threatening bacteremia and tissue destruction from exposure of wounds to seawater.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

74

Which of the following is not true of viral infections?

  1. Human papilloma virus can cause cervical cancer; a vaccine is available.
  2. AIDS is caused by HIV which infects CD4+ cells.
  3. The common cold may be caused by different viruses (rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses).
  4. Smallpox (vaccinia virus, a select agent) was eliminated from the population by vaccination with cowpox (the variola virus).
  5. Shingles is a consequence of being infected earlier in life with chickenpox.

A

75

Concerning anaerobic infections, which of the following is not true? X

  1. Clostridium difficile produces antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis.
  2. Clostridium perfringens produces gas gangrene and food-borne illness.
  3. Clostridium botulinum produces an intoxication (botulism, often from inadequate canning) and an infection (infant botulism, often from feeding babies honey).
  4. Bacteroides fragilis is a frank pathogen that produces colonic lesions if it should get in the colon.
  5. The clostridia are anaerobic bacterial endospore producers.

D

76

Which of the following is not true concerning immunity.

  1. Phagocytic cells have C3b receptors and Fc receptors for IgG.
  2. ADCC is antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and may be carried out by NK cells.
  3. NK cells can destroy tumor and virus infected cells with changes in surface markers.
  4. Granulomas are an attempt to wall off and contain microbes or other things that cannot be destroyed, but may lead to damage as in mycobacterial disease.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

77

Which of the following scientists of the golden age of microbiology is mismatched?

  1. “magic bullets”: Erlich
  2. germ theory of disease and disproof of spontaneous generation: Pasteur
  3. developed different ways to attenuate pathogens making them vaccines: Jenner
  4. discovered first antibiotic: Flemming
  5. made microscopes and discovered “wee animacules” (bacteria): von Leeuwenhoek

C

78

What is not true of LPS.

  1. May activate clotting mechanisms & DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation).
  2. Endotoxin causes fever, circulatory collapse, & shock through IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa.
  3. The toxic portion of the LPS is Lipid A.
  4. The O-antigens are whisker-like specific polysaccharides.
  5. All of the above are true.

E

79
  1. Which of the following immunoglobulins crosses the placenta, combines with toxins to neutralize or inactivate them, and activates complement via the classical pathway?
    1. IgG
    2. IgA
    3. IgM
    4. IgD
    5. IgE

A

80

Which is not true about plasmids?

  1. They are small circular extrachromosomal double-stranded DNA molecules.
  2. They are self-replicating.
  3. They may carry genes for adhesins,
  4. They may carry genes for exotoxins.
  5. All are correct

E

81

Which of the following is not true of the cause of Q fever Coxiella burnetii?

  1. survives in the hostile environment of the phagolysome
  2. a select agent
  3. with infectious dose of as few as 1
  4. transmitted from cattle, sheep, and goats by unpasteurized milk and birthing fluids.
  5. All of the above are true

E

82

Which of the following is not true of schistosomiasis?

  1. It is caused by a cestode (tapeworm).
  2. Schistosoma mansoni requires a human and an appropriate snail host.
  3. The organism coats itself with a mask of host antigens soon after it penetrates.
  4. The disease is due primarily to granulomas formed as a result of an exaggerated host response to the eggs.
  5. There are male and female worms that form conjugal pairs.

A

83

Which of the following is not a capsular vaccine?

  1. Prevnar and Pneumovax
  2. DTaP
  3. Hemophilus influenzae type b
  4. Meningococcal
  5. All of the above are capsular vaccines.

B

84

In which of the following patterns of pathogenesis: (1). Adherence, (2). Colonization (Multiplication), (3). Exotoxin Production, (4). Invasion, (5). Invasion and Exotoxin Production, would endotoxin play a role?

  1. 1,2,3
  2. 1,2,4
  3. 1,2,5
  4. B&C
  5. All of the above

D

85

Which of the following is not true of vaccines?

  1. BCG and MMR are examples of “living” attenuated vaccines
  2. Endotoxin can be toxoided for vaccines.
  3. Killed (or inactivated ) vaccines include Salk polio and conventional influenza
  4. Recombinant subunit vaccines include hepatitis B and HPV
  5. All of the above are true.

B