Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 26: Fluids, Electrolyte, Base Balance
Infants are what percent water
Adult males are what percent water
Adult females are what percent water
The elderly are what percent water
What is the total volume of water in the body
What portion of the body's water is intracellular fluid (inside the cells)
What portion of the body's water is extracellular fluid
What portion of the body's water is plasma?
What portion of the body's water is interstitial fluid (in spaces between cells)
What is the universal biological solvent
Do non-electrolytes ionize or dissociate in water?
Do electrolytes ionize and dissociate in water?
Do electrolytes or non-electrolytes have greater osmotic power influencing fluid shifts?
What are the major ions in the extracellular fluid?
Na+ and Cl-
Water moves freely between the intracellular fluid and the extracellular fluid by what process?
What is the average water output per day
What is the driving force for water intake?
Drinking water inhibits or enhances the thirst center?
An increase in plasma osmolality, an increase in angiotensin II a substantial decrease in blood volume or blood pressure stimulates or inhibits the hypothalmic thirst center?
Dehydration is due to negative or positive fluid balance?
Extracellular water loss produces intracellular dehydration or hyperhydration?
Hypotonic over-hydration is the medical term for what?
When a person has excessive water intake the extracellular osmotic pressure falls and water moves into or out of cells causing the cells to swell?
Atypical accumulation of extracellular fluid causes tissue swelling that leads to what?
Hypoproteinia is low or high plasma proteins?
Drinking too much bottled water will result in ___________.
A) intracellular swelling
B) intracellular hyperosmolarity
C) extracellular dehydration
D) intracellular dehydration
The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________________ .
A) the concentration of urea in the renal medulla
B) potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
C) the plasma level of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
D) the potassium ion content inside proximal convoluted tubule cells
The normal pH of blood is:
A) 7.4, which is slightly alkalotic
B) 7.4, which is slightly acidotic
C) 7.0, which is neutral
D) variable and ranges from 4.0 to 8.0 during the typical day
Which of the following is NOT a chemical buffer system?
A) phosphate ions
B) bicarbonate ions
D) chloride ions
As alveolar ventilation increases, which of the following is likely?
A) carbon dioxide pressure in the blood is lowered and the partial pressure of the oxygen in the blood decreases.
B) carbon dioxide pressure in the blood is increased and the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood increases.
C) carbon dioxide pressure in the blood is lowered and the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.
D) carbon dioxide pressure in the blood is unchanged and the partial pressure of the oxygen in the blood increases.
Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
A) There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.
B) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than non-electrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
C) Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body.
D) Non-electrolytes are the main controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
Which of the following will increase the sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid space?
A) Eating potato chips
B) Using sea salt
C) Substituting potassium salts for sodium salts
D) None of these will change the sodium concentration in ECF
Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except:
A) cerebrospinal fluid in the fourth ventricle.
B) blood plasma in the vena cava.
C) urine in the bladder.
D) lymph in the thoracic duct.
Which of the following statements about body water and the ionic composition of intracellular and extracellular fluids is NOT true?
A) Approximately 1/3 of the water in the body is in the intracellular compartment.
B) The body has a total of 40 liters of water.
C) Sodium (Na+) is the main cation (positive-charged ion) in the extracellular compartment.
D) Potassium (K+) is the main cation (positive-charged ion) in the intracellular compartment.
Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.
The total body water is divided into intracellular and extracellular fluids. Plasma is considered:
A disorder in which the total amount of water in the body is abnormal is:
A) excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins.
B) water intoxication, in which extracellular sodium concentration is reduced.
C) swelling of the leg due to blockage of the inferior vena cava.
D) edema caused by elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure.
Which of the following statements about calcium metabolism is correct?
A) Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany
B) Parathyroid hormone activates osteoblasts that deposit ionic calcium in bone
C) Parathyroid hormone decreases renal calcium re-absorption
D) Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption by the small intestine
The movement of water between cellular compartments ____________ .
A) requires aquaporins
B) follows ion fluxes, which are produced by active transport
C) is responsible for the flow of proteins from the plasma to the extracellular space
D) requires ATP for the active transport of water
Two substances directly involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism are:
A) vitamin C and estrogen
B) vitamin A and ADH
C) vitamin B and testosterone
D) vitamin D and calcitonin
When Na+ leaks into cells it is pumped out against its electrochemical gradients by what?
The ECF Na+ concentration fluctuates greatly or remains stable due to osmosis?
65% of Na+ is reabsorbed in what part of the nephron?
Proximal convoluted tubule
25% of Na+ is reclaimed in what part of the nephron?
Loop of Henle
These cells of the JGA secrete renin in response to low afferent blood pressure to bring blood pressure backup?
Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex glomerulosa cells to produce what hormone?
What hormone has the opposite actions of aldosterone?
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
What hormone is release by cardiac baroreceptors in response to stretch due to increased blood volume?
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
What hormone promotes vasodilation directly and decreases production of angiotensin II?
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
When baroreceptors in the body sense increase in blood pressure the afferent arterioles dilate causing GFR to increase or decrease?
When the GFR in glomeruli increases does Na+ and water output increase or decrease?
Where in the nephron can K+ be directly secreted into filtrate?
DCT and collecting ducts
What hormone stimulates K+ secretion in DCT and collecting ducts along with Na+ reabsorption?
When K+ levels are low, type A intercalated cells where reabsorb some of the K+ left in the filtrate
DCT and collecting ducts
Hypocalcemia can change muscle excitability and cause muscle tetany, is this due to increased or decreased excitability of cells?
Hypercalcemia can inhibit neurons and muscle cells and can cause what with the heart?
What hormone is the primary regulator of calcium balance?
This hormone activates osteoclasts in bone to break down bone and release Ca2+ and phosphate into blood
This hormone enhances absorption of Ca2+ in small intestine (by inducing renal conversion of vitamin D to its active form)
This hormone enhances reabsorption of Ca2+ by renal tubules (and increases excretion of phosphate ions by PCT)
Normal pH of the arterial blood is ?
Normal pH of the venous blood and ECF fluid?
What substance or chemical is liberated when CO2 is converted to HCO-3 in blood by carbonic anhydrase in RBCs?
What are the 3 ways the body regulates concentration of hydrogen ions in order sequentially?
Chemical buffer systems, brain stem respiratory centers and renal mechanisms
A system of compounds that act to resist pH changes when acid or base is added
What are the 3 chemical buffer systems in the body?
Bicarbonate, phosphate and protein
What is the main ECF buffer system?
What is the main ICF buffer system?
Intracellular proteins are the most plentiful and powerful intracellular ?
Lungs get rid of acid because they eliminate volatile carbonic acid by eliminating ?
Respiratory and renal systems act slower or faster than chemical buffer systems, but have more corrective capacity than chemical buffer systems?
CO2 behaves an acid or base in the body?
Removing CO2 reduces what in the body?
What occurs when decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH
What occurs when increased respiration, hyperventilation, elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide
What depresses chemoreceptors in the brain medulla and reduces rate and depth of respiration, which leads to increase in PCO2 (thus, body pH would decrease)
Secretion of H+, generation of new HCO-3 by tubular mechanisms, excretion of HCO-3 and catabolism of glutamine are all mechanisms of acid-base balance in what organ?
What is the single most important indicator for respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?
A condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body
A condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45). This is the result of decreased hydrogen ion concentration, leading to increased bicarbonate, or alternatively a direct result of increased bicarbonate concentrations.