Test 2- PSYC 1101

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1

Milgram's Obeience to Authority Experiment

experiment in 1961, over 65% of the participants went to 450 volts.-

  • demonstrates that people often obey destructive orders.
  • The performance of an action in response to a direct order
2

Soloman's Asc's Conformity Experiment

designed to test how peer pressure to conform would influence the judgment and individuality of a test subject.

EX: Boy sitting in classroom, everyone says wrong answer, test person agrees even if wrong

3

The Stanford Prison Experiment

assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudes.

ABU GHRAIB

4

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

most basic & must be suffiiciently

- self actualization

5

Holmes Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale

scale measures impact of life events

- assigns point values to 43 life events without accounting for how an individual perceives/copes with a particular stressor

6

Define stressors

the things or events that cause us to feel stress

7

Define Chronic Stressors and give 3 examples

daily, ongoing stressors

EX: traffic, bills, work

8

Define Acute Stressors

life threatening stressors

9

What are the primary psychological disorders?

Biological Perspective

Biopsychosocial Perspective

Psychodynamic Perspective

Learning Perspective

Cognitive Perspective

10

Define Biological Perspective

- abnormal behavior comes from physical cause

- biological treatments (drug therapy)

11

Define Biopsychosocial Perspective

- disorders result form a combination of biological, psychological, and social causes

- drug and psychotherapy are employed as treatment

12

Define Psychodynamic Perspective

- disorders stem from childhood & unresolved unconscious conflicts

- treatment involves psychoanalysis

13

Define Learning Perspective

- abnormal thoughts & behaviors are learned and sustained like any other behaviors

- treatment uses classical and operant condition & modeling to extinguish maladaptive behavior & increase adaptive behavior

- systematic desensitization

14

Define Cognitive Perspective

- faulty thinking & distorted perceptions can cause psychological disorders

- treatment tries to change faulty, irrational &/or negative thinking

15

What is the most common psychological disorder?

Depression

16

Define fear

an unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threat

17

Define phobia

an irrational fear

18

What is the most common type of hallucination for Schizophrenics?

Auditory

19

What are the 4 D's that are used when examining psychological disorders?

deviance

distress

danger

dysfunction

20

What is DSM?

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

- manual of psychological disorders and their symptoms

21

Define Type A Personality

high strung, competitve, impatient, ambitious, hostile

22

Define Type B Personality

laid back, patient, relaxed

23

Define Denial and give an example

refusing to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation

EX: Ben is an alcoholic who denies being an alcoholic.

24

Define Emotion Focused Coping

strategy to manage emotional reactions to stress

25

Define Rationalization and give an example

making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior

EX: "If I don't have breakfast, I can have that piece of cake later on without hurting my diet."

26

Define Projection and give an example

placing one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belong to them and not oneself

EX: Keisha is cheating but always accuses her spouse of cheating.

27

Define Reaction Formation and give an example

forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one's threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts

EX: Matt is unconsciously attracted to Ben, but outwardly voices an extreme hatred of homosexuals.

28

Define Displacement and give an example

expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target

EX: Sandra gets reprimanded by her boss and goes home to angrily pick a fight with her husband.

29

Define Regression and give an example

falling back on childlike patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations

EX: 4 y/o Jeff starts wetting the bed after his parents bring home a new baby.

30

Define Identification and give an example

trying to become like someone else to deal with one's anxiety

EX: Marie really admires Suzy, the most popular girl in school, and tries to copy her behavior and dress.

31

Define Compensation and give an example

trying to make up for areas where is lacked and is perceived by becoming superior in another area

EX: Reggie is not good at athletics, so he puts his effort into becoming an academic scholar.

32

Define Sublimation and give an example

turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior

EX: Alain, who is very aggressive, becomes a professional hockey player.

33

If a person exhibits behaviors that are similar to a disorder, but these behaviors do not cause significant problems in the person’s life or in the lives of those around them, then...............

they most like have tendencies towards a disorder, but not an actual psychological disorder.

34

What are the 2 sales techniques?

Foot in the door

Door in the face

35

Define foot in the door technique

when you try to get someone to comply with a small request and then move on to a larger request.

36

Define door in the face technique

when you ask someone for a large request and then move down to a smaller request.

37

Define Situational Attribution and give an example

attributing behavior to an external cause or factor related to a situation

EX: Seeing Ashley at the counter yelling at the worker, but knowing that she is a sweet girl and it must be the worker's fault

38

Define Dispositional Attribution and give an example

attributing behavior to an internal cause (personality trait)

EX: Seeing a man yell at a woman, claiming he is abusive and crazy.

39

Define Bystander Effect

presence of others has effect on decision to help/not help, with help becoming less likely as the # of bystanders increases

40

Define Impression Formation

forming of the first knowledge a person has about another person.

41

Define Impression Management

intentional steps taken to influence other's opinion of us

- Impression management influences how we view ourselves.

- important in meeting people who are in a position to provide something that we need or desire

42

Define Extrinsic Motivation and give an example

person performs action because leads to outcome that is separate from external

EX: money

43

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

most basic & must be suffiiciently

- self actualization

- psycholoical needs (friends, relationship)

- basic needs (food,water,safety)

44

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

most basic & must be suffiiciently

- self actualization

45

Define Emotion Focused Coping

strategy to manager emotional reactions to stress

46

Define Socioeconomic Status (SES)

financial, educational or occupational factors contributing to status

- LOW SES: more colds, flu, higher cholesterol & higher levels of stress hormones

47

Define Homeostasis

tendency of body to maintain a steady state

48

Define Survivor Guilt

mental condition that occurs when a person believes they have done something wrong by surviving a traumatic event when others did not.

49

Define Acculturative Stress

stress resulting from change & adapt a person's ways to majority culture

50

Define Cognitive Dissonance and give an example

discomfort / distress occurs when person's behavior and what they know to be true are not in alignment

EX: mob / riot - people become anonymous and part of collective group rather than holding to individual reality

51

What is the primary function of the sympathetic nervous system?

regulate the body's unconscious actions

stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response

constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis

52

What is the primary function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

controls homeostasis and the body at rest and is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" function

EX: sexual arousal, salivation, tears, urination, digestion, and defecation