Unit 7 Final

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Campbell Biology 10th Edition
Chapters 40-42, 44-50
chapters 40-50, ex 43
updated 3 years ago by seeairahx
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cuboidal epithelium

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cuboidal epithelium

specialized for secretion, makes up the epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands including the thyroid gland and salivary glands.

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simple columnar epithelium

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simple columnar epithelium

often found where the secretion of active absorption is important.

for example, a simple columnar epithelium lines the intestines, secreting digestive juiced and absorbing nutrients.

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simple squamous epithelium

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simple squamous epithelium

functions in the exchange of material by diffusion

this type of epithelium which is thin and leaky, lines the blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs, where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical.

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pseudostratified columnar epithelium

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pseudostratified columnar epithelium

consists of a single layer of cells, forms a mucous membrane that lines portions of the respiratory tract.

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stratified squamous epithelium

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stratified squamous epithelium

multilayered and regenerates rapidly, new cells formed by division near the basal surface push outward, replacing cells that are sloughed off.

this epithelium is commonly found on surfaces subject to abrasion, such as the outer skin and the linings of the mouth, anus, and vagina.

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loose connective tissue

binds epithelia to underlying tissue and holds organs in place

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fibrous connective tissue

dense with collagenous fibers

found in tendons, which attach muscle to bones, and in ligaments, which connects bones at joints

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muscle tissue

tissue responsible for nearly all types of body movements - all muscle cells consist of filaments containing the proteins actin and myosin, which together enable muscles to contract

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three types of muscle tissue

skeletal

smooth

cardiac

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skeletal muscle

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smooth muscle

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cardiac muscle

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skeletal muscle

attached to bones by tendons, skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movements; consists of bundles of long cells called muscle fibers; muscle fibers form by the fusion of many cells, resulting in multiple nuclei in each muscle fiber;arrangement of contractile units, or sarcomeres, along the fiber gives the cells a striped (striated) appearance.

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smooth muscle

lacks striations; found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and other internal organs; cells are spindle-shaped
responsible for involuntary body activities, such as churning of the stomach and constriction of arteries.

20

cardiac muscle

forms the contractile wall of the heart
striated like skeletal muscle and has similar contractile properties
has fibers that interconnect via intercalated disks, which relay signals from cell to cell and help synchronize heart contraction

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nervous tissue

functions in the receipt, processing, and transmissions of information; contains neurons, or nerve cells, which transmit nerve impulses; contains support cells called glial cells

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thyroid-stimulating hormone

(TSH)

(hormone acts solely on thyroid cells) stimulates the release of thyroid hormone, which acts on nearly every body tissue to increase oxygen consumption and heat production.

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essential nutrient

a substance that an organism cannot synthesize from any other material and therefore must absorb in preassembled form

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essential nutrients

amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals are an example of

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the key function(s) of essential nutrients

serving as substrates of enzymes, as coenzymes, and as cofactors in biosynthetic reactions

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main stages of food processing

ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination

27

ingestion

the act of eating or feeding

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digestion

(second stage of food processing); food is broken down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb

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absorption

(third stage of food processing); the animal’s cells take up, (absorb), small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars

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elimination

completes the processing of food as undigested material passes out of the digestive system

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amylase

enzyme, found in saliva, hydrolyzes starch (a glucose polymer from plants) and glycogen (a glucose polymer from animals) into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose.

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starch digestion begins

oral cavity

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protein digestion finishes

small intestine

34

digesting enzymes secreted from the _________ mainly work in the _________

pancreas; small intestine

35

last on the progession of digestive organs

large intestine

36

fat digestion is completed

small intestine

37

pH is about 2

stomach

38

pepsin works best in a/an _______ environment

a very acidic environment,by breaking peptide bonds, it cleaves proteins into smaller peptides.

39

hydrochloric acid (HCl), which disrupts the extracellular matrix and binds cells together in meat and plant material

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parietal cells

use an ATP-driven pump to expel hydrogen ions into the lumen, at the same time, chloride ions diffuse into the lumen through specific membrane channels of the parietal cells.

41

chief cells

release pepsin into the lumen in an inactive form called pepsinogen

42

pepsinogen

a digestive enzyme; secreted by chief cells

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parietal cells

activate pepsinogen; breakdown connective tissue

44

pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin - converted into the active protein-digesting enzyme called pepsin, because pepsin would destroy the chief cells that produce it, it is secreted in its inactive pepsinogen form

45

gastric juice doesn’t destroy the stomach cells that make it is because the ingredients of gastric juice are kept inactive until they are released into the lumen of the stomach

...

46

pepsin is an enzyme that:

breaks dietary proteins into their amino acid building block, activated by exposure to hydrochloric acid inside the stomach

47

the pancreas aids chemical digestion:

by producing an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate as well as several enzymes

48

bile

made in the liver, contains salts which act as emulsifiers that aid in digestion and abruption of lipids

49

villi

finger-like projections in large folds in the lining of the intestine

50

glucose homeostasis relies predominantly on the antagonistic (opposing) effects of which two hormones?

insulin and glucagon

51

when the blood glucose level rises above the normal range _______

the secretion of insulin triggers the update of glucose from the blood into the body cells, decreasing the blood glucose concentration

52

when the blood glucose level drops below the normal range ________

the secretion of glucagon promotes the release of glucose into the blood from energy stores, such as liver glycogen, increasing the blood glucose concentration

53

glucagon and insulin are both produced here

pancreas

54

minerals

inorganic molecules that are required in small amounts
grouped into two categories: macronutrients and micronutrients

55

macronutrients

nutrients needed in larger amounts; calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium
carbohydrates (glucose), proteins (amino acids), fats (fatty acids)

56

arteries

carry blood away from the heart toward capillaries

57

veins

return blood toward the heart from the capillaries

58

portal veins

carry blood between pairs of capillary veins

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atria (atrium)

chambers that receive blood entering the heart

60

ventricles

chambers responsible for pumping blood out of the heart

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right side of the heart

delivers oxygen-poor blood into the capillary beds of the gas exchange tissues, where there is a net movement of O2 into the blood and CO2 out of the blood

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after the oxygen-enriched blood leaves the gas exchange tissues, it enters this pump

left side of the heart

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when the heart contracts

the heart chamber pumps blood

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when the heart relaxes

the heart chamber fills with blood

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has the highest blood pressure

aorta

66

AV valve

anchored by strong fibers that prevent them from turning inside out; pressure generated by the powerful contraction of the ventricles closes this valve, keeping blood from flowing back into the atria

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left ventricle

pumps oxygenated blood to the systemic circuit

68

blood, like all fluids, flows from areas of ____

higher pressure to areas of lower pressure

69

gas exchange

the uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment

70

in a mammalian kidney, the production of hyperosmotic urine is possible ______

because considerable energy is expended for the active transport of solutes against concentration gradients

71

the primary solute(s) affecting osmolarity

NaCl, which is concentrated in the renal medulla by the loop of Henle, and urea, which passes across the epithelium of the collecting duct

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filtrate is formed when ______

blood pressure forces fluid from the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule

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processing occurs as the filtrate passes through _______

the proximal tube, the loop of Henle, and the distal tube.

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reabsorption

continues as the filtrate moves into the descending limb, here numerous water channels formed by aquaporin proteins make the transport epithelium freely permeable to water.

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ascending limb

lacks water channels, and is therefore impermeable to water

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distal tubule plays a key role in______

the regulating the K+ and NaCl concentration of body fluids

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descending limb

water moves by osmosis into the interstitial fluid here

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ascending limb

salt leaves by diffusion and active transport here

79

the posterior pituitary gland releases _______________ when blood osmolality rise above a set point

antidiuretic hormone

80

antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)

increases the permeability to water of the collecting ducts by increasing the number of epithelial aquaporin channels

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the force driving simple diffusion is:

the concentration gradient

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the energy source for active transport is:

ATP

83

the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine depends on the maintenance of an osmolarity gradient between the interstitial fluid of two structures:

the cortex and the medulla

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the descending loop of Henle

no energy required for transport; epithelium always permeable to water; numerous aquaporins, but almost no ion channels

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ascending loop of Henle

passive transport of NaCl in the thin segment; active transport of NaCl in the thick segment; no aquaporins

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Under the influence of ADH ___________

more concentrated urine is produced and the body conserves water

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the major blood vessels transporting blood to the kidney

the renal arteries

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delivers blood with nitrogenous waste to the kidney

the renal artery

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brings blood with less nitrogenous waste away from the kidney

the renal vein

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as the filtrate flows from cortex to medulla in the descending limb of Henle, water leaves the tubule by osmosis – solutes including NaCl, become more concentrated, what effect does this have on the osmolarity of the filtrate

increasing the osmolarity of the filtrate

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the loop of Henle maintains the interstitial gradient of ______ which increases continuously in concentration from the cortex to the inner medulla

NaCl

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a primary reason that kidneys have one of the highest metabolic rates of all body organs is:

that they operate an extensive set of active transport ion pumps

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secretion

the movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule

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the increasing solute concentration of the interstitial fluid results in:

water leaving the filtrate by osmosis

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glucose is removed from filtrate by:

active transport

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differential permeability’s of ascending and descending limbs of the loop of Henle

are important in establishing an osmotic gradient

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a filtrate

fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney

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reabsorption

the process in the kidney that puts useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids) back into the blood

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secretion

adding toxins and other solutes from the body fluids to the filtrate

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distal tubule

located between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium

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helps to make the interstitial fluid hypertonic relative to the filtrate, this allows water to be pulled out of filtrate through osmosis

ascending limb of the loop of Henle

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reabsorption of water continues through channels formed by aquaporin proteins

descending limb of the loop of Henle

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the first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients

proximal tubule

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the solute concentration of the interstitial fluid __________ along a gradient running from the exterior of the kidney to the center of the kidney

increases

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the increasing solute concentration of the interstitial fluid results:

in water leaving the filtrate by osmosis

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glucose is removed from filtrate by:

active transport; the reabsorption of glucose requires the expenditure of energy

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through active and passive transport

NaCl helps establish and maintain the osmolarity gradient

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through passive transport only

urea also helps establish and maintain the osmolarity gradient

109

through osmosis

a form of passive transport, water responds to the osmolarity gradient by leaving the filtrate

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endocrine signaling, secreted molecules diffuse into the blood-stream and trigger responses in target cells anywhere in the body

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in paracrine signaling, secreted molecules diffuse locally and trigger a response in neighboring cells

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autocrine signaling, secreted molecules diffuse locally and trigger a response in the cells that secrete them

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synaptic signaling, neurotransmitters diffuse across synapses and trigger responses in cells of target tissues (neurons, muscles, or glands)

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neuroendocrine signaling, neurohormones diffuse into the bloodstream and trigger responses in target cells anywhere in the body

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secreted by exocytosis and travel freely in the bloodstream, being insoluble to lipids, they cannot diffuse through the plasma membranes of target cells

water-soluble hormones

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water-soluble hormones

bind to cell-surface receptors, inducing changes in cytoplasmic molecules

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lipid-soluble hormones

diffuse out across the membranes of endocrine cells, outside the cell they bind to transport proteins that keep them soluble in the aqueous environment of the blood – upon leaving the blood, they diffuse into target cells and typically bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus

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signal transduction

is the linkage of a chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response

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upon reaching the liver, epinephrine binds to a G protein-coupled receptor in the plasma membrane of target cells. the binding of the hormone to receptor triggers a cascade of events in liver cells involving synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP) as a short-lived second messenger. activation of protein kinase A by cAMP leads to the activation of an enzyme required for glycogen breakdown and inactivation of an enzyme needed for glycogen synthesis.

120

the endocrine system in animals

the internal system of communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to hormones; functions in concert with the nervous system to effect internal regulation and maintain homeostasis

121

______________ receives information from nerves throughout the body and in response, initiates endocrine signaling appropriate to environmental conditions

the hypothalamus

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signals from the hypothalamus travel to the ___________ , a gland located at the base of the hypothalamus

pituitary gland

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an extension of the hypothalamus, hypothalamic axons that reach into the posterior pituitary secrete neurohormones synthesized in the hypothalamus.

the posterior pituitary

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an endocrine gland that synthesizes and secretes hormones in response to hormones from the hypothalamus.

the anterior pituitary

125

what hormone regulates bio energetics, helps maintain normal blood pressure, heart-rate and muscle tone, and regulates digestive and reproductive functions.

thyroid hormone

126

thyroid-stimulating hormone
(TSH)

stimulates release of thyroid hormone by the thyroid glands.

127

oxytocin

induces uterine contractions and release of milk from mammary glands

128

Parathyroid hormone
(PTH)

secreted by the parathyroid glands, causes bones to release Ca2+ into the blood and stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ in the kidneys, also stimulates the kidneys to activate vitamin D.

129

calcitonin

secreted by the thyroid, has the opposite effects in bones and kidneys at PTH. Important for calcium homeostasis.

130

in response to stress, neurosecretory cells in the adrenal medulla release __________ which mediate various fight-or-flight responses.

epinephrine and norepinephrine

131

the adrenal cortex

releases glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, which influence glucose metabolism and the immune system.

132

insulin

decreases glucose levels in the blood

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glucagon

increases glucose levels in the blood

134

when blood glucose rise _______ is released

insluin, causes the liver to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen

135

hypothalamus

synthesizes oxytocin and ADH; integrates nervous and endocrine systems

136

posterior pituitary

is an extension of the hypothalamus; releases oxytocin and ADH

137

anterior pituitary

regulated by hormones released into portal vessels; synthesizes and releases PRL (prolactin); synthesizes and releases TSH

138

anterior pituitary hormones FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH

stimulate endocrine glands

139

posterior pituitary hormones ADH and oxytocin

regulate nonendocrine tissues

140

cortisol comes from adrenal cortex

will help to raise blood sugar, regulates over hours or days

141

the hypothalamus secretes ____________ which then directs the anterior pituitary to secrete gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH).

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

142

example of positive feedback

anticipating pregnancy, system has to change to possibly support pregnancy

143

Human chorionic gonadotropin
(hCG)

shifts mothers reproductive cycle from trying to make a baby to supporting a baby

144

will keep corpus lutem intact to keep putting out hormones for baby

Human chorionic gonadotropin
(hCG)

145

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates follicle growth aided by LH and:

the cells of the growing follicles start to make estradiol

146

there is a slow rise in estradiol concentration during most of the follicular phase

he part of the ovarian cycle during which follicles grow and oocytes mature – several follicles begin to grow with each cycle, but usually only one matures; the others disintegrate

147

when estradiol secretion by the growling follicle begins to rise steeply, the FSH and LH levels ______

increase

148

where a low level of estradiol inhibits the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, a high concentration:

stimulates gonadotropin secretion by causing the hypothalamus to increase its output of GnRH

149

a high estradiol concentration also increases the GnRH sensitivity of LH-releasing cells in the pituitary, resulting in

a further increase in LH levels

150

luteinizing hormone

stimulates the follicular tissue left behind in the ovary to transform into a corpus luteum, a glandular structure

151

under continued stimulation by LH, the corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estradiol, which in combination exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary

this feedback reduces the secretion of LH and FSH to very low levels, preventing another egg from maturing when a pregnancy may already be under way

152

the blastocyst implants in the endometrium about ____ days after conception

7 days

153

one embryonic hormone, _____________, acts like pituitary LH in maintaining secretion of progesterone and estrogens by the corpus luteum through the first few months of pregnancy

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG),

154

the usual site of the implantation and development of the fertilized egg

the uterus

155

a surge in __________ is responsible for triggering ovulation

luteinizing hormone (LH)

156

by secreting estrogen and progesterone, __________ maintains the endometrium and inhibits FSH and LH secretion

the corpus luteum

157

developing ovarian follicles secrete______

estrogen

158

if there is fertilization, secretion of ___________ by the early embryo maintains the corpus luteum

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

159

the corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone, which maintain the endometrium for implantation

estrogen and progesterone are responsible for maintaining the endometrium in the event that the egg has been fertilized.

160

if there is no fertilization

degeneration of the corpus luteum results in a drop in estrogen and progesterone, which results in the sloughing off of the uterus’s endometrium

161

acrosomal reaction

the discharge of hydrolytic enzymes from the acrosome, a vesicle in the tip of a sperm, when the sperm approaches or contacts the egg

162

when a sperm head contacts the jelly coat of an egg

molecules in the jelly coat trigger the acrosomal reaction in the sperm; these enzymes partially digest the jelly coat, enabling a sperm structure called the acrosomal process to elongate and penetrate the coat. sperm must penetrate any protective layer on the egg, then bind to receptorschanges in the egg surface prevent polyspermy

163

gastrulation converts the blastula to a gastrula, which has a primitive digestive cavity and three germ layers

ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

164

molecules and events at the egg surface play a crucial role in each step of fertilization

first, sperm dissolve or penetrate any protective layer surrounding the egg to reach the plasma membrane - next, molecules on the sperm surface bind to receptors on the egg surface, helping ensure fertilization involves a sperm and egg of the same species - finally, changes at the surface of the egg prevent polyspermy, a condition in which multiple sperm nuclei enter the egg, fatally disrupting development

165

sperm binding triggers a cortical reaction, the release of enzymes from cortical granules to the outside of the cell, these enzymes catalyze changes in the __________

zona pellucida, which then functions as the slow block to polyspermy

166

during gastrulation

a set of cells at or near the surface of the blastula moves to an interior location, cell layers are established, and a primitive digestive tube is formed.

167

gastrulation

a reorganization of the hollow blastula into a two layered or three-layered embryo called a gastrula

168

neurulation

the early steps in the formation of the brain and spinal cord in vertebrates
begins as cells from the dorsal mesoderm form the notochord, a rod that extends along the dorsal side of the chordrate embryo

169

formation of the ______ is an example of induction, a process in which a group of cells or tissues influences the development of another group through close-range interactions

neural plate; the neural plate then rolls itself into the neural tube, which runs along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo

170

neural tube formation

infolding and pinching off of the neural plate generates the neural tube

171

a typical neuron has numerous highly branched extensions called _______

dendrites

172

dendrites

receive signals from other neurons

173

axon

an extension of a neuron that transmits signals to other cells; each branched end transmits information to another cell at a junction called a synapse.

174

sensory neurons

transmit information about external stimulus such as light, touch, or smell, or internal conditions such as blood pressure or muscle tension

175

in neurons, as in other cells, ions are unequally distributed between the interior of cells and surrounding fluid, which makes the inside of the cell _______ charged

negatively

176

the attraction of opposite charges across the plasma membrane is a source of potential energy - the charge difference, or voltage, is called the________

membrane potential

177

for a resting neuron, one that is not sending a signal, the membrane potential is called resting potential and is typically between

-60 and -80 mV (millivolts)

178

in most neurons, the concentration of __ is higher inside the cell while concentration of __ is higher outside.

in most neurons, the concentration of K + is higher inside the cell while concentration of Na­­­ + is higher outside.

179

sodium-potassium pump

a transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell - this pump uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to actively transport Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell

180

__________ allow ions to diffuse back and forth across the membrane

ion channels

181

action potentials

the signals conducted by axons

182

changes in the membrane potential occur because neurons contain gated-ions channels -

ion channels that open or close in repose to stimulus

183

the increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential, called a ____________, makes the inside of the membrane more negative

hyperpolarization

184

in a resting neuron, hyperpolarization

results from any stimulus that increases the outflow of positive ions or the inflow of negative ions

185

a reduction in the magnitude of the membrane potential

depolarization

186

<p>in neurons, ___________ often involves gated sodium channels. if a stimulus causes gated sodium channels to open, the membrane’s permeability to Na increases. Na diffuses into the cell along its concentration gradient causing a depolarization as the membrane potential shifts.</p> <span>depolarization</span>

depolarization

187

graded potential

in a neuron, a shift in the membrane potential that has an amplitude proportional to signal strength and that decays as it spreads

188

electrical insulation that surrounds vertebrate axons

myelin sheath

189

in myelinated axons, voltage gated sodium channels are restricted to gaps in the myelin sheath called __________.

nodes of Ranvier

190

neurons communicate with other cells at____

synapses

191

at many chemical synapses, the receptor protein that binds and responds to neurotransmitters is a ____________

ligand gated ion channel

192

when the membrane of the axon is at the resting potential, most voltage-gated sodium channels are ______, some potassium channels are _______, but most voltage-gated potassium channels are ________

when the membrane of the axon is at the resting potential, most voltage-gated sodium channels are closed, some potassium channels are open, but most voltage-gated potassium channels are closed

193

when a stimulus depolarizes the membrane, some gated sodium channels open, allowing more ___ to diffuse into the cell.

Na+ - the Na­­+ inflow causes further depolarization, which opens still more gated sodium channels, allowing more Na­­+ to diffuse into the cell

194

rising phase

once the threshold is crossed, the positive-feedback cycle rapidly brings the membrane potential close to E­Na

195

falling phase

voltage-gated sodium channels inactivate soon after opening, halting Na­­+ inflow; and most voltage-gated potassium channels open, causing a rapid outflow of K+

196

undershoot

  • the final phase of an action potential called the undershoot, the membrane’s permeability to K­+ is higher than at rest – the gated potassium channels eventually close, and the membrane potential returns to the resting potential

the final phase of an action potential, the membrane’s permeability to K­+ is higher than at rest – the gated potassium channels eventually close, and the membrane potential returns to the resting potential

197

at many chemical synapses, the receptor protein that binds and responds to neurotransmitters is a _________

ligand-gated ion channel – a transmembrane protein containing a pore that opens or closes as it changes shape in response to a signaling molecule (ligand), allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions.

198

binding of the neurotransmitter (the receptor’s ligand) to a particular part of the receptor opens the channel and allows specific ions to diffuse across the postsynaptic membrane, the result is a ____________

postsynaptic potential, a graded potential in the postsynaptic cell

199

cephalization

an evolutionary trend toward a clustering of sensory neurons and interneurons at the anterior (front) end of the body

200

central nervous system
(CNS)

the portion of the nervous system where signal integration occurs; in vertebrate animals, the brain and spinal cord

201

peripheral nervous system
(PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect to the central nervous system

202

glia

nourish, support, and regulate the functioning of neurons

203

ependymal cells

line the ventricles of the brain, and have cilia that promote circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid

204

astrocytes

found in the CNS, facilitate information transfer at synapses and in some instances, release neurotransmitters

205

astrocytes

next to active neurons cause nearby blood vessels to dilate, increasing blood flow and enabling the neurons to obtain oxygen and glucose more quickly

  • astrocytes also regulate extracellular concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters
  • metabolize neurotransmitters and modulate synaptic effectiveness

when next to active neurons cause nearby blood vessels to dilate, increasing blood flow and enabling the neurons to obtain oxygen and glucose more quickly; regulate extracellular concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters; metabolize neurotransmitters and modulate synaptic effectiveness

206

oligodendrocytes

, myelinate axons in the CNS

myelination greatly increases the conduction of speed of action potentials

microglia, immune cells in the CNS that protect against pathogens

myelinate axons in the CNS

207

________ greatly increases the conduction of speed of action potentials

myelination

208

microglia

immune cells in the CNS that protect against pathogens

209

during embryonic development in vertebrates, the ______________ develops from the hollow dorsal nerve cord

central nervous system
(CNS)

210

formed in the brain by filtration of arterial blood

cerebrospinal fluid

211

the brain and spinal cord contain

gray matter and white matter

212

the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the human brain contain a filtrate of the blood, called ___________

cerebrospinal fluid

the arterial blood in the brain forms a filtrate that makes up the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which drains into the venous circulation

213

gray matter

primarily made up of neuron cell bodies; regions of clustered neuron cell bodies with the CNS

214

white matter

consists mainly of bundled axons; tracts of axons within the CNS

215

in the spinal cord, _________ makes up the outer layer, consistent with its function in linking the CNS to sensory and motor neurons of the PNS

white matter

216

spinal cord

conveys information to and from the brain and generates basic patters of locomotion

217

in the brain, _________ is predominantly in the interior, where signaling between neurons functions in learning, feeling emotions, processing sensory information, and generating commands

white matter

218

reflexes

the body’s automatic responses to certain stimuli

219

activation of the sympathetic division corresponds to

arousal and energy generation (the fight-or flight response)

220

sympathetic division

increases energy expenditure and prepares the body for action

221

parasympathetic division

enhances body activities that gain and conserve energy, such as digestion and reduced heart rate

222

cochlea

two large canals, an upper vestibular canal and a lower tympanic canal, separated by a smaller cochlear duct – both canals are filled with fluid

223

<p>tympanic membrane</p> <span>vibrates from air pressure and converts to pressure waves of fluid in cochlea</span>

vibrates from air pressure and conerts to pressure waves of fluid in cochlea; acts on 3 bones to transmit the pressure: malleus, incus, and stapes

224

<p>if hair cells were damaged:</p> <span>pressure waves would not be transmitted to the brain via an action potential</span>

...

225

<p>hair cell</p> <span>a mechanosensory cell that alters output to the nervous system when&nbsp;</span>hair like<span>&nbsp;projections on the cell surface are displaced</span>

a mechanosensory cell that alters output to the nervous system when hair like projections on the cell surface are displaced

226

before vibration waves reach hair cells, they are amplified and transformed by several accessory structures

first, structures in the ear convert the vibrations of moving air to pressure waves influid; moving air that reaches the outer ear causes the tympanic membrane to vibrate, containing 3 bones in the middle ear transmit vibrations to the oval window, creates pressure waves in the fluid inside the cochlea; fluid pressure waves push down on the cochlear duct and basilar membrane – in response, the basilar membrane and attached hair cells vibrate up and down; with each vibration, the hairs bend first in one direction and then the other, causing ion channels in the hair cells to open or close

227

bending in one direction __________ hair cells, increasing neurotransmitter release and the frequency of action potentials directed to the brain along the auditory nerve

depolarizes

bending the hairs in the other direction hyperpolarizes hair cells, reducing neurotransmitter release and the frequencies of auditory nerve sensations.

depolarizes

228

<p>bending the hairs in the other direction ________ hair cells, reducing neurotransmitter release and the frequencies of auditory nerve sensations.</p> <span>hyperpolarizes</span>

hyperpolarizes

229

photoreceptor

an electromagnetic receptor that detects the radiation known as visible light

  • on the outside, the human eye is surrounded by the conjunctiva, a mucous membrane, the sclera, a connective tissue, and the choroid, a thin pigmented layer

<p>an electromagnetic receptor that detects the radiation known as visible light</p> <br><span>on the outside, the human eye is surrounded by the conjunctiva, a mucous membrane, the sclera, a connective tissue, and the choroid, a thin pigmented layer</span>

230

on the outside, the human eye is surrounded by the ________________

conjunctiva, the sclera, and the choroid

231

sclera

connective tissue

232

cunjunctivaa

mucous membrane

233

choroid

a think pigmented layer

234

sclera forms

the transparent cornea

235

the choroid forms

the colored iris

236

<p>by changing size, the iris regulates the amount of light entering the _________</p> <span>pupil (the hole in the center of the iris)</span>

pupil (the hole in the center of the iris)

237

in the ________ the neurons and photoreceptors of the retina from the innermost layer of the eyeball

choroid

238

retina

the innermost layer of the vertebrate eye, containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) and neurons; transmits images formed by the lens to the brain via the optic nerve

the optic nerve exits the eye at the optic disk

the lens, a transparent disk of protein, divides the eye into two cavities

lens, the structure in an eye that focuses light rays onto the photoreceptors

the innermost layer of the vertebrate eye, containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) and neurons; transmits images formed by the lens to the brain via the optic nerve

239

the optic nerve exits the eye __________

at the optic disk

240

lens

a transparent disk of protein, divides the eye into two cavities; the structure in an eye that focuses light rays onto the photoreceptors

241

in front of the lens lies the aqueous humor, a clear watery substance – blockage of ducts that drain this fluid can produce _________.

glaucoma
a condition in which increased pressure in the eye damages the optic nerve, causing vision loss

242

light strikes the retina, passing through largely transparent layers of neurons before reaching the _____ and _____, two types of photoreceptors that differ in shape and in function

rods and cones

243

the neurons of the retina:

relay visual information captured by the photoreceptors to the optic nerve and brain along pathways

244

each bipolar cell receives information from

several rods or cones

245

ganglion cell receives information from

several bipolar cells

246

<p>optic disk</p> <span>lacks photoreceptors – “blind spot”, where light is not detected</span>

lacks photoreceptors – “blind spot”, where light is not detected

247

<p>vision begins when:</p> <span>photons of light enter the eye and strike the rods and cones, there the energy of each photon is captured by a shift in configuration of a single chemical bond in retina</span>

photons of light enter the eye and strike the rods and cones, there the energy of each photon is captured by a shift in configuration of a single chemical bond in retina

248
card image

humans have two main types of photoreceptor cells: rods and cones

249

rods

a rodlike cell in the retina of the vertebrate eye, sensitive to low light intensity; more sensitive to light but do not distinguish colors, they enable us to see at night, but only in black and white

250

cones

a cone-shaped cell in the retina of the vertebrate eye, sensitive to color; provide color vision, but being less sensitive, contribute very little to night vision

251

vertebrate visual pigments consist of a light-absorbing molecule called ______ (a derivative of vitamin A) bound to a membrane protein called an opsin

retinal

252

the visual pigment of rods is called ________

rhodopsin

253

retinal

the light-absorbing pigment in rods and cones of the vertebrate eye

254

rhodopsin

a visual pigment consisting of retinal and opsin, upon absorbing light, the retinal changes shape and dissociates from the opsin

255

the transduction of visual information to the nervous system begins with the light-induced conversion of _________ to _______

cis-retinal to trans-retinal; absorption of light shifts one bond in retinal from a cis to a trans arrangement, this change in configuration destabilizes and activates the opsin protein to which retinal is bound

256

in bright light, _______ remains active, and the response in the rods becomes saturated

rhodopsin

257

the processing of visual information begins in the retina itself, where _______ and _____ form synapses with bipolar cells

both rods and cones

258

in the dark, rods and cones are _______ and continually release the neurotransmitter glutamate at these synapses

depolarized

259

focusing

occurs in humans by changing the shape of the lens

when you focus your eyes on a close object, your lenses become almost spherical

when you focus on a distance object, your lenses are flattened

260

fovea

the place on the retina at the eye’s center of focus, where cones are highly concentrated; at the fovea, the center of the visual field, there are no rods but a very high density of cones

261

eye can focus on different distances due to the lens, __________ help lens move, hold in place, distortion

suspensory ligaments

262

eyes adjust to different light intensities, due to the ______ contracting/opening letting different amounts of light in

iris

amount of light coming out determines brightness
can tell different intensities of light apart due to the chemical change and a change in shapes

263

rhodopsin

a transmembrane protein that has a molecule of cis-retinal joined to it, when light hits the retinal, it is converted to trans-retinal, the protein then changes it shape and can signal this change to the downstream signaling pathway

264

the number of ________ protein being activated is proportional to the intensity of light (number of photons per unit time) which will indicate if it is bright or dim

rhodopsin

265

if someone spends time outside on a bright sunny day it is hard to see when they enter a dark interior of a building because __________

the pupil constricts to optimize the amount of light needed for vision; other changes in the proteins can block the signaling process; wearing sunglasses minimize the quantity of light entering the eye so the signaling process is not overwhelmed

266

near vision (accommodation)

ciliary muscles contract, pulling border of choroid toward lens; suspensory ligaments relax; lens becomes thicker and rounder, focusing on nearby objects

267

distance vision

ciliary muscles relax, and border of choroid moves away from lens, sensory ligaments pull against lens, lens becomes flatter, focusing on distant objects

268

the perception of gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell) both depend on ____________

chemoreceptors
the senses of taste and smell rely on similar sets of sensory receptors

269

taste

the detection of chemicals called tastants that are present in a solution,

270

smell

the detection of odorants that are carried through the air

271

the receptor cells for taste in mammals are modified epithelial cells organized into ________, which are scattered in several areas of the tongue and mouth

taste buds

272

taste buds

a collection of modified epithelial cells on the tongue or in the mouth that are receptors for taste in mammals; any region of the tongue with taste buds can detect any of the five types of tastes.

273

small raised structures called ________ cover the tongue surface

papillae

274

olfactory receptor cells

line the upper portion of the nasal cavity and send impulses along their axons to the olfactory bulb of the brain; in olfaction, the sensory cells are neurons

275

thin filament

a filament consisting of two strands of actin and two strands of regulatory protein coiled around one another; a component of myofibrils in muscle fibers

276

the thick filaments

staggered arrays of myosin molecules

277

__________ is the product of filament movement powered by chemical energy; muscle extension occurs only passively

muscle contraction

278

inside a muscle cell lies a longitudinal bundle of ______, which contain the thin and thick filaments

myofibril

279

myofibril

longitudinal bundle in a muscle cell (fiber) that contains thin filaments of actin and regulatory proteins and thick filaments of myosin

280

the myofibrils in muscle fibers are made up of repeating sections called ________, which are basic contractile units of skeletal muscle

sarcomeres

281

sarcomere

the fundamental, repeating unit of striated muscle, delimited by the Z lines

282

sliding-filament model

the idea that muscle contraction is based on the movement of thin (actin) filaments along thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization

283

according to the sliding-filament model, the thin and thick filaments ratchet past each other, powered by myosin molecules - each myosin molecule has a long “tail” region and globular “head” region

the tail adheres to the tails of other myosin molecules, binding together the thick filament; the head, which extends to the side, can bind ATP, hydrolysis of bound ATP converts myosin to a high-energy form that binds actin, forming a cross-bridge
the myosin head then returns to is low every form as it pulls the thin filament toward the center of the sarcomere
when a new molecule of ATP binds to the myosin head, the cross-bridge is broken

284

muscle contraction requires repeated cycles of _______ and _______

binding and release
in each cycle, the myosin head freed from a cross-bridge cleaves to the newly bound ATP and binds again to actin
because the thin filament moved toward the center of the sarcomere in the previous cycle, the myosin head now attaches to a new binding site farther along the thin filament
at rest, most muscle fibers contain only enough ATP for a few contractions

285

powering repetitive contractions requires two other storage compounds:

creatine phosphate and glycogen

transfer of a phosphate group from creatine phosphate to ADP in an enzyme-catalyzed synthesis additional ATP.

286

ATP stores are also replenished when _______ is broken down to ________

glycogen, glucose

287

_________, a regulatory protein, and the _______, a set of additional regulatory proteins, are bound to the actin strands of thin filaments.

tropomyosin, troponin complex

288

in muscle fiber at rest, ________ covers the myosin-binding sites along the thin filament, preventing actin and myosin from interacting

tropomyosin

289

tropomyosin

the regulatory protein that blocks the myosin-binding sites on actin molecules

290

troponin complex

the regulatory proteins that control the position of tropomyosin on the thin filament

291

when calcium ion concentration ______ in the cytosol, the thin and thick filaments slide past each other, and the muscle fiber contracts.

rises

292

when the calcium ion concentration _____, the binding sites are covered, and contraction stops

falls

293

motor neurons cause muscle contraction by triggering the release of ______ into the cytosol of muscle cells with which they form synapses

calcium
this regulation of calcium concentration is a multistep process involving a network of membranes and compartments within the muscle cell

294

the arrival of an action potential at the synaptic terminal of motor neuron causes release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, binding of acetylcholine to receptors on the muscle fiber leads to a _________, triggering an action potential

depolarization

295

within the muscle fiber, the action potential spreads deep into the interior, following infoldings of the plasma membrane called __________, which make close contact with the ___________, a specialized endoplasmic reticulum

transverse (T) tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

296

as the action potential spreads along the T tubules, it triggers changes in the SR, opening ______ channels.

calcium
calcium ions stored in the interior of the SR flow through open channels into the cytosol and bind to the troponin complex, initiating the muscle fiber contraction.

297

cardiac muscle

has fibers that interconnect via intercalated disks, which relay signals from cell to cell and help synchronize heart contraction; has structures for communication between cells