Sport Psychology Final Exam

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How is sport psychology multidisciplinary?

It is a combination of kinesiology and psychology, a marriage


How is sport psych a dual relationship

Your performance affects your psychology and mindset and your mindset going into your performance affects the performance


What is the difference between state and trait

The present dictating behavior versus the stable behaviors across situations


What is the interactionist theory

Behavior is a function of you as a person in your environment. It is who you are, where you are, and that is what dictates your behavior.


What is the iceberg profile

Athletes should have low tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion, but should have high vigour pre-competition


What are the three personality parts

Psychological core, typical responses, and role related behavior. In order of least affected by environment to the most affected



This is the only trait that athletes and non-athletes do not share


Extrinsic motivation vs Intrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation is behavior that results from the presence of an external reward, whereas intrinsic is motivation that occurs with no external reward.


What are attributions

Explanations for a particular outcome


What is cognitive evaluation theory

A person's interpretation of the reward rather than the actual reward itself


What is stress

The perception of imbalance between environmental demand and response adaptability


What is arousal

A blend of psychological and physiological activation or autonomic reactivity (physical and mental)


What is anxiety

Negative emotional impact after arousal or h ow the mind reacts to arousal. Can be state or trait (situation specific or generally your disposition)


Cue Utilization theory. What happens to body if too high or too low?

Too high or too low arousal causes difficulties with muscle tension and coordination.

Underarousal - attentional field too broad, not engaged, bored, doesn’t process anything going on around him, mind is wandering

If arousal is too high, you get tunnel vision, missed open guy under basket

Optimal arousal equals optimal attention field and optimal performance


What is catastrophe theory

"Shit hits the fan" theory. Performance can get better after you "tank" but it's a slow, gradual path towards improvement


Drive theory

Performance is determined by habit times your drive

Drive is the arousal

Habit is dominant response

Theory states that if arousal increases, so does performance

Drive theory only works when someone's dominant response is the right response (they know the sport)

Doesn't work with children because children need a lower arousal when playing sports because it is so new to them


Transfer (PYD)

The idea that what you learn in sport can be applied in other parts of life.


Deficit vs asset approach

Reduce risks, deficits, and compromising behaviors vs promote or enhance developmental assets


Tuckman's model

Forming, storming, norming, performing. Performance is lowest during storming


Steiner's model

The productivity of the team equals the group's potential productivity minus the losses due to faulty processes. For example, "Johnny's little league baseball team was told by the coach that if everyone plays their individual very best, they will win the game. They lose"


Ringlemann Effect

Individual abilities do not add up to total group performance. 1 person will try harder to pull a rope than if they were with 4 other people


Social loafing

The psychological definition for why people do not try as hard


Task cohesion

When a group shares common goals and objectives


Social cohesion

Interpersonal attraction among group members



Outcome doesn't depend on other teammates, sports like bowling, golfing, skiing. Social cohesion is more common in this.



Most interaction possible, everything depends on teammates, more task cohesion. Volleyball, basketball, soccer


PST myths

PST skills cannot be learned, there is no time to teach PST, PST is for "problem" athletes only, PST is for "elite" athletes, PST provides quick-fix solutions


PST skills in and out of sport

The use of up/down arousal regulation in game time situations as well as before an exam, imagery and mental preparation, concentration, self-talk, etc


Why regulate arousal

Optimal performance, increased focus, stay in control, reduce stress


Strategies to regulate arousal down

Somatic anxiety regulation

- PMR(Progressive muscle relaxation), breath control/techniques, cue words (self talk)

Cognitive anxiety regulation

- Meditation, systematic desensitization, hypnosis

Other methods would be listening to calm music


Strategies to regulate arousal up

Pep talk, upbeat music, move around, cue words, pre-competition workout


Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)

The process of systematically tensing and relaxing muscles to release tension and high arousal and to have better control of it


Matching hypothesis

If there is a problem, there needs to be a specific solution for it. If there is a cognitive problem, then there needs to be a cognitive solution. A somatic problem needs a somatic solution. If there is a cognitive problem, a somatic solution will not help at all.


Psychoneuromuscular theory

If you think it, your body does it. "Imagery activates same muscles that actual movement does, very similarly close activation


Motivational imagery vs cognitive imagery

Cognitive imagery is imagining a task being done versus motivational imagery which is meant to evoke emotion and increase focus


What is vividness

The ability to incorporate the five senses into making imagery as detailed as possible


What is controllability

The ability to manipulate images so they do whatever you want them to do.


What is internal perspective

Perspective that is inside of body and viewing situations like shooting a free throw or hitting a home run. This is a more realistic perspective


What is external perspective

Perspective where it is an out of body type of imagery. Similar to watching self in a movie. Less realistic, but the benefit is the ability to correct mistakes better when watching self as a whole. Example would be watching film in football or watching form when exercising.


Concussion myths

- Concussions must include a loss of consciousness

- CT scans or MRIs are the best way to diagnose a concussion

- After ample rest, there is no future risk of negative concussion effects





Hostile aggression versus instrumental aggression

Primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm, versus primary goal being to reach an external outcome, but need to inflict harm to achieve that goal. Instrumental is more accepted in sport.


Bracketed morality

What is okay in one setting does not mean it is okay in another. It is acceptable to hit someone in hockey, but not a good idea to hit someone in Walmart.


Social learning theory

This theory states that when we see behavior from someone else, it automatically teaches us that it is acceptable.


Revised frustration theory

Originally was that frustration leads to aggression and that aggression provides us the opportunity to get rid of frustration. The revised theory is that frustration leads to the readiness to aggress. Frustration makes us ready to be aggressive, but we may or may not become aggressive.


What are the four sources of self-efficacy in order of most important to least important

Successful past performance, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal


What is successful past performance

Our past performance is the best predictor of our future behavior


What is vicarious experience

Forming ideas about our ability by watching others. You have to believe your ability is similar to someone elses


What is verbal persuasion

Feedback or encouragement from others. If you are given feedback, it increases self-efficacy. Feedback given must be specific


What is emotional arousal

The idea that how we feel emotionally, physically, or cognitively alters our belief about success


Difference between Self efficacy versus confidence

Self efficacy is a personality state in which someone has confidence in completing a specific task.

Confidence is a personality trait. A trait to be a confident person regardless of situations, beliefs about resources and strengths.


Process vs outcome goals

Process is the actions an individual must engage in during performance to execute or perform well (I'm going to go to the gym 5 times a week). The outcome is focusing on the competitive result and can be compared to others, (I'm going to lose more weight than my roommate)


What are the SMART goals

Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound


What is association

"Zoning in", it is correlated w/ faster running and better performance and is more utilized with experts


What is dissociation

"Zoning out", better for exercise adherence(commitment), decreases fatigue and monotony(repetitiveness), better for beginners and amateurs


Self talk

Helps to stay focused and keep mind from wandering. Three types, positive, instructional, and negative.


Difference between negative and positive self talk

Negative - don't drop the ball

Positive - hold onto the ball


Disagreement over definition of injury

Does it have to include missing play for loss of function/pain? Some people play through pain


What are the 3 antecedents of injury

Personality factors, history of stressors, and coping resources


What is the bioecological model?

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This looks at how different social entities impact you, your functioning, and your recovery.

Microsystem: Entities that most directly influence the individual

Mesosystem: The combination of two or more microsystems

Exosystem: Our environmental settings with an indirect but profound affect. (President, traffic)

Macrosystem: The greater cultural context that has an affect but very indirect affect on the individual (American culture, product of higher education(college), banks,


Identify how a bioecological model can relate to students

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