Sport Psychology Final Exam
How is sport psychology multidisciplinary?
It is a combination of kinesiology and psychology, a marriage
How is sport psych a dual relationship
Your performance affects your psychology and mindset and your mindset going into your performance affects the performance
What is the difference between state and trait
The present dictating behavior versus the stable behaviors across situations
What is the interactionist theory
Behavior is a function of you as a person in your environment. It is who you are, where you are, and that is what dictates your behavior.
What is the iceberg profile
Athletes should have low tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion, but should have high vigour pre-competition
What are the three personality parts
Psychological core, typical responses, and role related behavior. In order of least affected by environment to the most affected
This is the only trait that athletes and non-athletes do not share
Extrinsic motivation vs Intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation is behavior that results from the presence of an external reward, whereas intrinsic is motivation that occurs with no external reward.
What are attributions
Explanations for a particular outcome
What is cognitive evaluation theory
A person's interpretation of the reward rather than the actual reward itself
What is stress
The perception of imbalance between environmental demand and response adaptability
What is arousal
A blend of psychological and physiological activation or autonomic reactivity (physical and mental)
What is anxiety
Negative emotional impact after arousal or h ow the mind reacts to arousal. Can be state or trait (situation specific or generally your disposition)
Cue Utilization theory. What happens to body if too high or too low?
Too high or too low arousal causes difficulties with muscle tension and coordination.
Underarousal - attentional field too broad, not engaged, bored, doesn’t process anything going on around him, mind is wandering
If arousal is too high, you get tunnel vision, missed open guy under basket
Optimal arousal equals optimal attention field and optimal performance
What is catastrophe theory
"Shit hits the fan" theory. Performance can get better after you "tank" but it's a slow, gradual path towards improvement
Performance is determined by habit times your drive
Drive is the arousal
Habit is dominant response
Theory states that if arousal increases, so does performance
Drive theory only works when someone's dominant response is the right response (they know the sport)
Doesn't work with children because children need a lower arousal when playing sports because it is so new to them
The idea that what you learn in sport can be applied in other parts of life.
Deficit vs asset approach
Reduce risks, deficits, and compromising behaviors vs promote or enhance developmental assets
Forming, storming, norming, performing. Performance is lowest during storming
The productivity of the team equals the group's potential productivity minus the losses due to faulty processes. For example, "Johnny's little league baseball team was told by the coach that if everyone plays their individual very best, they will win the game. They lose"
Individual abilities do not add up to total group performance. 1 person will try harder to pull a rope than if they were with 4 other people
The psychological definition for why people do not try as hard
When a group shares common goals and objectives
Interpersonal attraction among group members
Outcome doesn't depend on other teammates, sports like bowling, golfing, skiing. Social cohesion is more common in this.
Most interaction possible, everything depends on teammates, more task cohesion. Volleyball, basketball, soccer
PST skills cannot be learned, there is no time to teach PST, PST is for "problem" athletes only, PST is for "elite" athletes, PST provides quick-fix solutions
PST skills in and out of sport
The use of up/down arousal regulation in game time situations as well as before an exam, imagery and mental preparation, concentration, self-talk, etc
Why regulate arousal
Optimal performance, increased focus, stay in control, reduce stress
Strategies to regulate arousal down
Somatic anxiety regulation
- PMR(Progressive muscle relaxation), breath control/techniques, cue words (self talk)
Cognitive anxiety regulation
- Meditation, systematic desensitization, hypnosis
Other methods would be listening to calm music
Strategies to regulate arousal up
Pep talk, upbeat music, move around, cue words, pre-competition workout
Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
The process of systematically tensing and relaxing muscles to release tension and high arousal and to have better control of it
If there is a problem, there needs to be a specific solution for it. If there is a cognitive problem, then there needs to be a cognitive solution. A somatic problem needs a somatic solution. If there is a cognitive problem, a somatic solution will not help at all.
If you think it, your body does it. "Imagery activates same muscles that actual movement does, very similarly close activation
Motivational imagery vs cognitive imagery
Cognitive imagery is imagining a task being done versus motivational imagery which is meant to evoke emotion and increase focus
What is vividness
The ability to incorporate the five senses into making imagery as detailed as possible
What is controllability
The ability to manipulate images so they do whatever you want them to do.
What is internal perspective
Perspective that is inside of body and viewing situations like shooting a free throw or hitting a home run. This is a more realistic perspective
What is external perspective
Perspective where it is an out of body type of imagery. Similar to watching self in a movie. Less realistic, but the benefit is the ability to correct mistakes better when watching self as a whole. Example would be watching film in football or watching form when exercising.
- Concussions must include a loss of consciousness
- CT scans or MRIs are the best way to diagnose a concussion
- After ample rest, there is no future risk of negative concussion effects
Hostile aggression versus instrumental aggression
Primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm, versus primary goal being to reach an external outcome, but need to inflict harm to achieve that goal. Instrumental is more accepted in sport.
What is okay in one setting does not mean it is okay in another. It is acceptable to hit someone in hockey, but not a good idea to hit someone in Walmart.
Social learning theory
This theory states that when we see behavior from someone else, it automatically teaches us that it is acceptable.
Revised frustration theory
Originally was that frustration leads to aggression and that aggression provides us the opportunity to get rid of frustration. The revised theory is that frustration leads to the readiness to aggress. Frustration makes us ready to be aggressive, but we may or may not become aggressive.
What are the four sources of self-efficacy in order of most important to least important
Successful past performance, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal
What is successful past performance
Our past performance is the best predictor of our future behavior
What is vicarious experience
Forming ideas about our ability by watching others. You have to believe your ability is similar to someone elses
What is verbal persuasion
Feedback or encouragement from others. If you are given feedback, it increases self-efficacy. Feedback given must be specific
What is emotional arousal
The idea that how we feel emotionally, physically, or cognitively alters our belief about success
Difference between Self efficacy versus confidence
Self efficacy is a personality state in which someone has confidence in completing a specific task.
Confidence is a personality trait. A trait to be a confident person regardless of situations, beliefs about resources and strengths.
Process vs outcome goals
Process is the actions an individual must engage in during performance to execute or perform well (I'm going to go to the gym 5 times a week). The outcome is focusing on the competitive result and can be compared to others, (I'm going to lose more weight than my roommate)
What are the SMART goals
Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound
What is association
"Zoning in", it is correlated w/ faster running and better performance and is more utilized with experts
What is dissociation
"Zoning out", better for exercise adherence(commitment), decreases fatigue and monotony(repetitiveness), better for beginners and amateurs
Helps to stay focused and keep mind from wandering. Three types, positive, instructional, and negative.
Difference between negative and positive self talk
Negative - don't drop the ball
Positive - hold onto the ball
Disagreement over definition of injury
Does it have to include missing play for loss of function/pain? Some people play through pain
What are the 3 antecedents of injury
Personality factors, history of stressors, and coping resources
What is the bioecological model?
This looks at how different social entities impact you, your
functioning, and your recovery.
Microsystem: Entities that most directly influence the individual
Mesosystem: The combination of two or more microsystems
Exosystem: Our environmental settings with an indirect but profound affect. (President, traffic)
Macrosystem: The greater cultural context that has an affect but very indirect affect on the individual (American culture, product of higher education(college), banks,
Identify how a bioecological model can relate to students