final exam (pt. 3)

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1

What is the most common cause of a stroke?

Thrombus formation

2

A patient is experiencing the signs and symptoms of a stroke. Which of the following is a contraindication to fibrinolytic therapy for this patient?

Patient had a lap choley surgery 2 weeks ago

3

A TIA is defined as…

a reversible episode of focal neurological dysfunction that typically lasts a few minutes to a few hours, resolving within 24 hours.

4

Select the correct statement regarding ischemic stroke.

Ischemic strokes account for the majority of all strokes.

5

The window of opportunity for the use of TPA to treat ischemic stroke due to thromboembolism is currently _______ hours.

3

6

The _______ arteries carry the majority of the blood supply to the brain.

Carotid

7

Stroke is the______ leading cause of death in the USA.

3rd

8

The American Heart Association would like awareness to lead to more knowledge about stroke in the general public, so that people would recognize stroke commonly as a "brain attack."

true or false

true

9

Stroke as a result of cardiac sources of emboli come from

All of the above.

10

__________ are small areas of infarction and necrosis associated with thrombosis of small arteries of the deep white matter in the brain.

Lacunar strokes

11

What are other causes of stroke-like symptoms that should be ruled out as part of the differential diagnosis?

All of the above

12

The normal value for cholesterol levels in the blood is _______.

<200 mg/dl

13

paralysis of one side

Hemiplegia

14

sensation of spinning

Vertigo

15

good fat

HDL

16

same side

Ipsilateral

17

unable to communicate

Aphasia

18

difficulty speaking

Dysphasia

19

impaired reading ability

Dyslexia

20

bad fat

LDL

21

numbness and tingling

Paresthesia

22

opposite side

Contralateral

23

pulling a curtain down over visual field

Amaurosis Fugax

24

posturing towards center of body

Decorticate

25

inability to write

Dysgraphia

26

difficulty swallowing

Dysphagia

27

posturing away from center of body

Decerebrate

28

sinking down

Ptosis

29

clumsiness

Dysarthia

30

What are different types (forms) of aneurysms?

Pseudo, true, sacular

31

An IVC Filter is an invasive surgical treatment used for the prevention of pulmonary embolism from an acute DVT.

true or false

true

32

__________ causes swelling of the small and medium sized arteries in the legs and feet and is associated with men who smoke.

Buerger's Disease

33

____________ causes constriction of the small vessels in the fingers and toes, is associated with emotional or cold stress and involves women more commonly.

Raynaud's Syndrome

34

All of the following are included in Virchow's Triad EXCEPT.

A-fib

35

The symptoms of pulmonary embolism include all of the following EXCEPT.

chest pain that does not vary with respirations

36

Coarctations are most likely to occur in the

isthmus region of the aorta.

37

A 10 year old boy is admitted to the emergency room complaining of chest tightness, headache, and shortness of breath. His brachial blood pressures are elevated, cardiac rhythm is tachycardic, femoral and pedial pulses are weak. What is the most likely diagnosis?

coarctation

38

A 42 year old male is in the vascular lab complaining of numbness in the right arm upon exertion. The blood pressure in the left arm is 130mmHg and in the right arm is 103 mmHg. His carotid study reveals retrograde flow in the right vertebral artery. What is the most likely diagnosis?

subclavian steal

39

A 29 year old pregnant woman reports to the ER complaining of sudden shortness of breath. Pulse oximetry reveals decreased oxygen saturation. You are called to the ER for a stat venous study which is positive. What is the most likely diagnosis?

DVT with pulmonary embolism

40

The vessel known as "the widow maker" is the ______.

Left anterior descending

41

The most common form of cardiovascular disease is _______.

Hypertension

42

What is the single most preventable risk factor associated with the leading cause of death in the United States?

Smoking

43

The main risk factors associated with CAD include all of the following EXCEPT?

Healthy Diet

44

Arteriosclerosis refers to

calcium deposits, stiffening, or hardening of the arteries.

45

Modifiable risk factors for heart disease include all of the following EXCEPT?

Heredity

46

Angina is the most common risk factor for CAD.

true or false

false

47

Angina is an indication that ischemia is occurring to the myocardium.

true or false

true

48

Typical anginal pain is characterized by all of the following statements EXCEPT?

Lasts longer than 30 minutes.

49

Predisposing factors for myocardial infarction include

Elevated serum triglycerides and Women who smoke and take oral contraceptives

50

Diagnosis of AMI is confirmed by looking for

All of the above.

51

The treatment of choice for angina pectoris is

Sublingual nitroglycerine.

52

Sudden death resulting from an acute MI usually occurs within _____ from the time of onset of symptoms.

2 hours

53

Which of the following are hallmark signs of RV heart failure?

hepatomegaly and JVD

54

The cornerstone of treatment for CHF is diuretic therapy.

true or false

true

55

The leading cause of essential hypertension is __________.

idiopathic

56

What are the symptoms of HTN?

Blurred vision, headache, ringing in the ears, flushed face

57

Another name for Dilated cardiomyopathy is

congestive.

58

In dilated cardiomyopathy, thrombus formation within the chambers of the heart are due to the fact that _________.

the ventricles are poorly pumping. and Blood is pooling in the chambers.

59

Restrictive CM is also known as _________.

Infiltrative

60

Pericardial tamponade is a disease of ____________.

diastolic dysfunction

61

Small amounts of fluid around the heart can cause tamponade.

true or false

true

62

Sources of possible cardiac infiltrates include all of the following EXCEPT.

bacteria

63

All of the following are possible causes of dilated cardiomyopathy EXCEPT.

Pompe's disease

64

A stenosis is defined as

some sort of obstruction and .a narrowing of an orifice.

65

The main hemodynamic consequence to the ventricle of a stenotic valve is

hypertrophy

66

The main hemodynamic consequence to the atria of a stenotic valve is

enlargement and dilatation

67

"Stripping" and "window" are two treatment options for pericarditis.

true or false

true

68

elevated LVEDP

obstructive CM

69

pericardial friction rub

pericarditis

70

speckled myocardium

restrictive CM

71

muffled heart

tamponade

72

new regurgitant murmur

acute MI

73

Which of the following is NOT a hemodynamic consequences of aortic stenosis?

increased cardiac output

74

Stenosis of a valvular orifice creates a __________ problem.

pressure and afterload

75

Valvular regurgitation creates a ____________ problem.

volume and preload

76

Which of the following is a cause of mitral valve stenosis?

All of the above

77

Treatment of severe aortic valve disease may include

all of the above.

78

People with valvular disease should take antibiotic prophylaxis prior to any invasive procedures.

true or false

true

79

A VSD is when there is a hole between the two atria.

true or false

false

80

Most septal defects shunt blood right to left in the normal direction.

true or false

false

81

Bicuspid AV is the most common congenital heart defect.

true or false

true

82

Ebstein's Anomaly affects the mitral valve 50% of the time.

true or false

false

83

Which of the following are defects associated with Tetrology of Fallot?

PS, RVH, ORAO, VSD

84

Failed to develop

Atresia

85

Atrialized RV

Ebsteins

86

Homograft

Human

87

Pig

Porcine

88

LVH

HTN

89

Continuous "machinery"

PDA

90

Under developed

Hypoplastic

91

Cow

Bovine

92

Mid-systolic click

MVP

93

Xenograft

Animal

94

AV canal defects are seen most often in patients with

Down's Syndrome

95

You are called to scan a neonate in the NICU stat. You observe the patient to be blue, non-responsive to oxygen therapy, and extremely low oxygen saturation. What is your biggest concern at this time?

Perform the scan as quickly as possible and inform the doctor.

96

MR

systole

97

MS

Diastole

98

TR

Systole

99

TS

Diastole

100

AS

Systole

101

AI

Diastole

102

PS

Systole

103

PI

Diastole

104

What is the difference between a pseudo and a true aneurysm?

A true aneurysm involves all three layers and a pseudo aneurysm involves only one or two layers of the vessel.