Chapter 16: Simple Patterns of Inheritance

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Chapter 16
Simple Patterns of Inheritance
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1

Pea plants cannot self-fertilize because an individual plant is either female or male, having either ovaries or stamens but not both.

False

2

A woman visits her doctor's office complaining of pattern baldness. Her mother and father do not have pattern baldness, but her brother does. The doctor is concerned that she may have the serious condition of __, and he immediately orders blood tests to check her ________ levels.

adrenal gland, 5-dihydroxytestostrone

LO: 16.05.04 Discuss how the environment plays a critical role in determining the outcome of traits.
Section: 16.05 Variations in Inheritance Patterns and Their Molecular Basis
Topic: Inheritance

3

Consider the human population. With regards to the ABO blood groups there are _____ alleles, ____ possible genotypes, and _____ possible phenotypes.

3, 6, 4

4

Tay Sachs is a lysosomal storage disease that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Individuals with Tay Sach have a defect in the gene encoding hexosaminidase A, a lysosomal enzyme that breaks down cell membrane components called gangliosides. The inability to break down gangliosides causes harmful quantities of this lipid to accumulate in nerve cells of the brain, eventually leading to premature death of affected cells. There is no known cure for the disease, and death usually occurs by age 4. (T= dominant allele; t = recessive allele) Jack and Jill have a child who has Tay-Sachs. What do you know about the genotypes of Jack and Jill?

Both are heterozygous

5

A cross between two pea plants results in 732 purple and 268 white plants. What is (are) the genotype(s) and phenotype(s) of the parents that produced these offspring?

? both parents are heterozygous purple

LO: 16.01.03 Distinguish between genotype and phenotype.
Section: 16.01 Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
Topic: Inheritance

6

Roberts Syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by mild to severe prenatal retardation or disruption of cell division, leading to malformation of the bones in the skull, face, arms, and legs. Shown below is a pedigree for a family with Robert’s Syndrome. Based on this pedigree Roberts Syndrome is inherited as a(n) ___________ trait?

autosomal recessive

LO: 16.03.01 Apply pedigree analysis to deduce inheritance patterns in humans.
Section: 16.03 Pedigree Analysis of Human Traits
Topic: Inheritance

7

A person who is homozygous for a mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

can lead a normal life if the environment is controlled.

LO: 16.05.04 Discuss how the environment plays a critical role in determining the outcome of traits.
Section: 16.05 Variations in Inheritance Patterns and Their Molecular Basis
Topic: Inheritance

8

The single-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that

the two alleles for a given gene are distributed randomly among an individual's gametes.

9

In Hodags (mythical creatures of Wisconsin), brown fur (B) is dominant over gray fur (b) and long horns (H) are dominant over short horns (h). Two true-breeding hodags, one with brown fur and long horns and the other with gray fur and short horns mate and produce an F1. Two F1 individuals are mated. What proportion of the offspring will exhibit a phenotypic combination that is different from the P generation? Assume the genes for fur color and horn length are on different chromosomes.

6/16

(9:3:3:1 -- 6 will be different, 10 will be same -- 9 dominate & 1 recessive)

10

If you were to examine a typical population at a single locus, you would find more copies of the wild-type allele than any other allele.

True

11

The color of petunia flower can be changed from red to blue by altering the pH of the soil. This is an example of

norm of reaction

12

The probability of a couple having either a boy or a girl is ½. However, many families have more boys than girls and VICE VERSA. Why is the observed ratio of boys to girls in typical families different than the predicted ratio?

Two of the answers are correct. There is a large random sampling error due to the small size of human families and the sex of each child is determined independently.

13

What is a dominant allele?

In a heterozygous individual, the allele that determines the phenotype

14

Incomplete dominance is when

the phenotype of a heterozygote is not the same as either parent, but it is somewhere between the two parents.

15

What is the distribution of phenotypes from a cross of purple dwarf pea plants that are heterozygous for flower color and plant height? (Purple is dominant to white; tall is dominant to dwarf.)

63 purple dwarf; 28 purple tall; 27 white dwarf; 7 white tall

16

The probability of obtaining a dominant phenotype from self-fertilization of a heterozygous individual is

75%

LO: 16.01.04 Use a Punnett square to predict the outcome of a genetic cross.
Section: 16.01 Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
Topic: Inheritance
Type: Quantitative Reasoning

17

Eyelash length is an inherited trait. In the human population, there is an eyelash length gene. There are two possible variants of this gene - an allele for long eyelashes (> 1cm) and an allele for short eyelashes (1 cm or less). The allele for long eyelashes is dominant (L) and the allele for short eyelashes is recessive (l). An individual who is heterozygous for eyelash length would have which of the following genotypes?

Ll

LO: 16.01.03 Distinguish between genotype and phenotype.
Section: 16.01 Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
Topic: Inheritance

18

Only fathers can pass on pattern baldness to their sons.

False

19

Two babies are mixed up in the hospital nursery. The blood types of Couple 1 are A and O and the blood types of Couple 2 are AB and B. Baby Joe has blood type O and Baby Jane has blood type B. Who are the parents of Baby Joe and Baby Jane?

Couple 1, Baby Joe; Couple 2, Baby Jane

20

Human males produce

sperm, half contain an X chromosome, half contain a Y chromosome.

21

A male is heterozygous for the trait that produces freckles on the skin, and he has freckles. If he marries a woman who is also heterozygous for freckles, ______ percent of their children will be freckled and __________ percent of their children will be heterozygous.

75%, 50%

22

_________ occurs when 50% of a protein produces a different phenotype than that produced by 100% or 0% of the protein.

Incomplete dominance

23

Eyelash length is an inherited trait. In the human population, there is an eyelash length gene. There are two possible variants of this gene - an allele for long eyelashes (> 1cm) and an allele for short eyelashes (1 cm or less). How many eyelash length alleles does an individual have in one of her/his somatic cells?

2

24

Eyelash length is an inherited trait. In the human population, there is an eyelash length gene. There are two possible variants of this gene - an allele for long eyelashes (> 1cm) and an allele for short eyelashes (1 cm or less). The allele for long eyelashes is dominant (L) and the allele for short eyelashes is recessive (l). An individual who is heterozygous for eyelash length would have which of the following phenotypes?

Long eyelashes

25

In Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments, the ratio of red-eyed flies to white-eyed flies appeared to follow a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance. What observation(s) did he make that led to his conclusion that the white-eyed trait was actually not a simple Mendelian trait?

He was able to correlate the expression of white eyes to the inheritance of an X chromosome because only F2 males had white eyes and the trait is recessive.

26

Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive condition that results in deficient blood clotting. The disease causes excessive bleeding which occurs spontaneously or upon slight injury. In dogs (as in humans) hemophilia is caused by a defect in a gene on the X chromosome. What will be the results of mating between a normal, non-carrier female dog and a male dog with hemophilia?

All of the offspring will be normal, but all females will be carriers.

27

A white cow was mated with a red cow, and they had an offspring who was roan – the calf had an even mixture of white hairs and red hairs covering her body. What is the most likely explanation of the inheritance of the roan coat?

red and white are codominant

28

An X-linked gene is

a gene on the X chromosome

29

Roberts Syndrome extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by mild to severe prenatal retardation or disruption of cell division, leading to malformation of the bones in the skull, face, arms, and legs. Shown below is a pedigree for a family with Robert’s Syndrome. Consider couple II-C and II-D. What is the probability that their next two children will have Robert's Syndrome?

1/16 (Rr X Rr = 1/4 rr; 1/4 x 1/4 = 1/16)

LO: 16.06.02 Apply the product rule and sum rule to problems involving genetic crosses.
Section: 16.06 Genetics and Probability
Topic: Inheritance

30

Nearsightedness is dominant to normal vision and hazel eyes are dominant to blue eyes. A nearsighted woman with hazel eyes who is heterozygous for both traits marries a man with normal vision and hazel eyes. His genotype for eye color is the same as his wife's. Their three children all have blue eyes and normal vision. What is the probability that their next child will have blue eyes and be nearsighted?

1/8

LO: 16.06.01 Explain the concept of probability.
Section: 16.06 Genetics and Probability
Topic: Inheritance
Type: Quantitative Reasoning

31

Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive genetic condition. In humans it is due to a mutation in the F8 gene, which encodes a protein called coagulation factor VII. Coagulation factors are proteins important in blood clotting. Individuals with hemophilia, when injured, bleed longer than a normal, healthy individual; the inability to normally clot blood can be life threatening. Hemophilia is much more common in males than in females. Which of the following does NOT explain why this is so?

Males have to receive a defective allele only from their father to get hemophilia A

32

The two-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that

alleles for a given trait are distributed randomly among an individual's gametes independent of the alleles for other traits.

33

A couple has five sons. What is the probability that their next child will be a girl?

50%

34

Imagine that horn color in Hodags (folkloric creatures of Wisconsin) is controlled by a single gene. You mate a Hodag homozygous for a bright orange horns (C O CO) with a Hodag homozygous for ivory horns (C I CI). Numerous offspring are produced, all with pale orange horns. This pattern of inheritance of horn color can best be described as

incomplete dominance.

35

Type 1 fucosidosis is a rare human disease. Patients cannot hydrolyze the disaccharide fucose, and as a result have severe neurological decline and die by age 6. The disease is due to a defect in the gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme that breaks down fucose (α-1-fucosidase), and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Jane and John have a child who has Type 1 fucosidosis. What is the probability that their next two children will NOT have the disease?

9/16

LO: 16.06.02 Apply the product rule and sum rule to problems involving genetic crosses.
Section: 16.01 Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
Topic: Inheritance
Type: Quantitative Reasoning

36

For mechanisms of sex determination, which of the following is incorrectly paired?

1n-2n, pea plant

37

Polydactyly is a dominant trait that results in extra fingers and toes in humans. A man with polydactyly marries a woman with 10 fingers and toes. They have a child that has a normal number of digits. The phenotype of the man's father is unknown, but his mother has a normal phenotype. What are the genotypes of the married couple? (D = polydactyl allele; d = wild type allele)

woman dd, man Dd

38

What personal characteristics and events in Gregor Mendel's life significantly contributed to his ultimate contribution to the study of inheritance?

His training in physics and mathematics at the University of Vienna.

39

In mammals, males are ________ and females are _______ for their sex chromosomes.

hemizygous, homozygous

40

A person with blood type O can donate blood to people of any blood type.

True

41

Which of the following inheritance patterns is matched with an inaccurate molecular basis?

Simple Mendelian inheritance: The protein produced by a single allele cannot produce the dominant phenotype.

42

Offspring receive both the alleles for a given trait from one parent.

False

43

Type 1 fucosidosis is a rare human disease. Patients cannot hydrolyze the disaccharide fucose, and as a result have severe neurological decline and die by age 6. The disease is due to a defect in the gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme that breaks down fucose (α-1-fucosidase), and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Jane and John have a child who has Type 1 fucosidosis. What is the probability that their next child will also have the disease?

1/4

44

In Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments, males had white eyes but females did not. What cross could you perform with his flies to obtain white-eyed females?

crossing either the F1 or F2 females with a white-eyed male will produce some white-eyed females

45

Eyelash length is an inherited trait. In the human population, there is an eyelash length gene. There are two possible variants of this gene - an allele for long eyelashes (> 1cm) and an allele for short eyelashes (1 cm or less). The allele for long eyelashes is dominant (L) and the allele for short eyelashes is recessive (l). An individual who is heterozygous for eyelash length would produce which of the following gametes?

Half of the gametes would have the L allele and half of the gametes would have the allele.

46

Type 1 fucosidosis is a rare human disease. Patients cannot hydrolyze the disaccharide fucose, and as a result have severe neurological decline and die by age 6. The disease is due to a defect in the gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme that breaks down fucose (α-1-fucosidase), and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Which of the following statements is ACCURATEabout Type1 fucosidosis?

Ff individuals make enough α-1-fucosidase to break down fucose and do not exhibit the condition

47

In humans, having dimples in the cheeks is a dominant trait. If a child has dimples but only one of her parents does, what are the genotypes of her parents? (D = dimples; d = no dimples)

One parent must be dd, the other parent could be either Dd or DD

48

A mutation in a single gene always has only one discrete effect on an individual's phenotype.

False

49

The sex of all animals is determined by chromosomes.

False

50

Color blindness is a recessive X-linked trait. A normal couple has a color-blind child. Who else in this family is probably color blind?

LO: 16.04.02 Predict the outcome of crosses when genes are located on sex chromosomes.
Section: 16.04 Sex Chromosomes and X-Linked Inheritance Patterns
Topic: Inheritance

51

An organism has one Z chromosome and one W chromosome. That organism is

a female bird.

52

The law of independent assortment states that the two alleles of the same gene will segregate from each other during gamete formation.

An individual with an SRY gene is a male mammal.

53

An individual with an SRY gene is a male mammal.

True

The Sex-determining Region Y (Sry in mammals but SRY in humans) is a gene found on Y chromosomes that leads to the development of male phenotypes, such as testes.

54

In goats, the gene for coat color is on an autosome and light brown color is dominant to black. A light brown male is mated to a black female, producing a black kid (baby goat). If they produce another kid, could it be light brown? If so, what are the chances of it being light brown?

Yes, 50% as the male must be heterozygous for color

55

Type 1 fucosidosis is a rare human disease. Patients cannot hydrolyze the disaccharide fucose, and as a result have severe neurological decline and die by age 6. The disease is due to a defect in the gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme that breaks down fucose (α-1-fucosidase), and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Which of the following statements is ACCURATE about Type1 fucosidosis?

Ff individuals make enough α-1-fucosidase to break down fucose and do not exhibit the condition

56

In dogs, there is a hereditary deafness caused by a recessive allele, d. A kennel owner has a male dog that she wants to use for breeding purposes if possible. The dog can hear, but the owner is unsure of the genotype. She does a testcross (crosses it to a homozygous recessive dog), and two of the five offspring are deaf. This means that the male dog

has the genotype Dd

57

An organism that is heterozygous for two traits can produce a maximum of _______ different gametes for these traits.

2

58

Roberts Syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by mild to severe prenatal retardation or disruption of cell division, leading to malformation of the bones in the skull, face, arms, and legs. Shown below is a pedigree for a family with Robert’s Syndrome. What is the genotype of individual II-C? (R = wild type; r = Robert's syndrome)

Rr

59

What is the difference between the blood types, A, B, and O?

A and B individuals have different modifications made to their carbohydrate tree. O individuals have no modifications made to their carbohydrate tree.

60

Anury is the absence or abbreviation of the tail in sheep (and also other animals). It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. A ram with anury is mated to a ewe with a normal tail. The ram’s father had anury, his mother did not. What is the probability that the ram and ewe will produce a lamb with anury? (ram = male; ewe = female)

50%

61

The probability of obtaining a dominant phenotype from self-fertilization of a heterozygous individual is

75%

62

Imagine that horn color in Hodags (folkloric creatures of Wisconsin) is controlled by a single gene. You mate a Hodag homozygous for a bright orange horns (C O CO) with a Hodag homozygous for ivory horns (C I CI). Numerous offspring are produced, all with pale orange horns. You cross an orange-horned Hodag with an ivory-horned Hodag and get an F1. You then cross two F1 individuals. What phenotypic ratio would you expect in the F2 generation?

1 bright orange: 2 light orange: 1 ivory

63

Eyelash length is an inherited trait. In the human population, there is an eyelash length gene. There are two possible variants of this gene - an allele for long eyelashes (> 1cm) and an allele for short eyelashes (1 cm or less). The allele for long eyelashes is dominant (L) and the allele for short eyelashes is recessive (l). An individual who is heterozygous for eyelash length would produce which of the following gametes?

...

64

What features of meiosis allow for independent assortment of chromosomes?

Random alignment of homologous sister chromatids on the metaphase plate

65

Imagine that horn color in Hodags (folkloric creatures of Wisconsin) is controlled by a single gene. You mate a Hodag homozygous for a bright orange horns (C O CO) with a Hodag homozygous for ivory horns (C I CI). Numerous offspring are produced, all with pale orange horns. This pattern of inheritance of horn color can best be described as

incomplete dominance.

66

A locus encodes different genes in different individuals of the same species.

false