Glycolysis

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created 4 years ago by lizosburn13
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updated 4 years ago by lizosburn13
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biochemistry
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1

Step 1

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Glucose→ Glucose-6-Phosphate

Hexokinase-Transferase

Spontaneous, Irreversible

Mechanism: attack of C6 hydroxyl oxygen of glucose on the γ-phosphorous of MgATP

Most kinases require Mg2+

Glucose is phosphorylated immediately upon entering the cell to trap in cell

2

Step 2

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Glucose-6-Phosphate → Fructose-6-Phosphate

Phosphoglucose Isomerase- Isomerase

Spontaneous, Reversible

Has to be in open chain form

3

Step 3

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Fructose-6-phosphate → Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

Phosphofructokinase- Transferase

Spontaneous, Irreversible

Regulatory Step- sets pace

4

Step 4

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Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate → Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

Aldolase- Lyase

5

Step 5

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Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate → Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

Trios Phosphate Isomerase- Isomerase

6

Step 6

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Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate → 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase- Redox

2 reactions: oxidation to OH first, then Acyl-phosphate formation

Does NOT use ATP

7

Step 7

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1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate → 3-Phosphoglycerate + ATP

Phosphoglycerate Kinase- Transferase

8

Step 8

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3-Phosphoglycerate → 2-Phosphoglycerate

Phosphoglycerate Mutase- Isomerase

Reversible

9

Step 9

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2-Phosphoglycerate → Phosphoenolpyruvate

Enolase- Redox?

10

Step 10

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Phosphoenolpyruvate → Pyruvate

Pyruvate Kinase- Transferase

Substrate Level Phosphorylation

Irreversible

Regulated allosterically, covalently, and by hormones

11

Glycolysis

3 stages:

1) Conversion of glucose into fructose 1,6 – bisphosphate. Traps glucose in the cell

2) Cleavage into two 3-carbon units.

3)ATP harvesting

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD + + 2 P i

2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H + + 2 H 2 O

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