topic #13 DNA to RNA to Protein

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1

true or false

a RNA molecule is a double-stranded helix

false

2

true or false

Synthesis of the leading strand occurs continously and proceeds towards the replication fork

true

3

true or false

translation ( protein synthesis ) occurs in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell

false

4

true or false

RNA polymerase is the enzyme that synthesizes DNA

false

5

The ________ allows for the "translation" of nucleotides to amino acids.

a) DNA polymerase

b) RNA polymerase

c) Lagging strand

d) Codons

d = codons

6

Which of the following is ALWAYS the first codon on mRNA

a) AUG

b) TAG

c) ATG

d) GUA

e) BAD

a) AUG

7

The enzyme that synthesizes RNA utilizes 1 strand of DNA as a template. What nucleotide is placed in the growing RNA strand when the enzyme encounters a thymine (T) on the DNA strand?

a)U

b)A

c)T

d)C

e)G

b) A

8

which of the following signals the end of transcription

a)promotor

b)terminator

c)stop codon

d)anticodon

e)peptide bonds

b) terminator

9

what is the complementary DNA sequence of the following DNA strand :

3'- ATC GTC TCG-5'

5'-TAG CAG AGC-3'

10

name 2 types of RNA

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

11

DNA -> RNA->Proteins

means ________->__________

nucleic acids -> amino acids

12

DNA -> RNA->Proteins

DNA and RNA share a process called

transcription

13

DNA -> RNA->Proteins

RNA and Proteins share a process called

translation

14

transcription occurs in

the nucleus

15

How many steps are associated with the transcription & translation process

3

16

what are the 3 steps of the transcription& translation process (IN ORDER)

1) Initiation

2) elongation

3) termination

17

(transcription process )

Step 1: initiation

what is it?

promotor

18

(transcription process )

Step 1 : initiation

what happens

the promotor binds and reads RNA polymerase

19

(transcription process )

step 2 : elongation

is where what happens

RNA polymerase start base pairing

20

(transcription process )

step 3 : termination

what is it

terminator sequence

21

(transcription process )

step 3 : termination

what is produced

mRNA

22

(transcription process )
step 3 : termination

what happens with tRNA

amino acids

23

(transcription process )
step 3 : termination

what happens with rRNA

ribose creates proteins

24

the translation process occurs in the

cytosol

25

( translation process)

step 1 : initiation

what happens

"AUG"=methionine (start codon)

26

( translation process)
step 2 : elongation
what comes into play

tRNA, ribose

27

( translation process)
step 3: termination
what comes into play

stop codon

28

for the translation process how many stop codons are there

3

29

DNA stands for

deoxyribonucleic acid

30

RNA stands for

ribonucleic acid

31

DNA is a _____ strand

double

32

RNA is a _____ strand

single

33

pentose =

5 carbon sugar

34

DNA and RNA are built from

nucleotides

35

what does a nucleotide contain

pentose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

36

DNA is known for its ______ shape

double helix

37

The pentose sugar in DNA is called

deoxyribose

38

The pentose sugar in RNA is called

ribose

39

Carbons 1 through 4 (1' through 4')
are within the ring structure of both ______, with the fifth (5') ____ the
ring.

nucleic acid sugars, outside

40

The phosphate functional group is attached at the ____ carbon.

5'

41

The structure of A and G are 2 carbon rings fused together collectively known as

purines

42

The other three bases C, T and U are all single ringed nitrogenous bases
called

pyrimidines

43

Thus, both DNA and RNA contain ___ purines and___ pyrimidines each, and differ in only ____of the pyrimidines (T vs. U).

2, 2, 1

44

Any nitrogenous base in either DNA or RNA attaches at the___position of the pentose.

1'

45

What codons are for DNA

A, T, C, G

46

What are the codons for RNA

A, U, C, G

47

What is most important is that during S phase each DNA molecule is _______ duplicated.

EXACTLY

48

What is most important is that during S phase each DNA molecule is EXACTLY duplicated. This process is called

DNA synthesis

49

what are the three key characteristics that facilitate the replication or repair of a DNA molecule:

1) complementary base pairing

2) anti-parallel arrangement of strands

3) semi-conservative nature of synthesis

50

Complementary Base Pairing - Either single strand (side) of DNA has any conceivable sequence of the

four N bases.

51

Complementary Base Pairing - Either single strand (side) of DNA has any conceivable sequence of the four N bases. The sequence of bases on the opposite strand is exactly determined by the nature of these bases since A always is matched to ____, and _____ is always matched to C.

T, G

52

Complementary Base Pairing - Either single strand (side) of DNA has any conceivable sequence of the four N bases. The sequence of bases on the opposite strand is exactly determined by the nature of these bases since A always is matched to T, and G is always matched to C. This is known as

chargraff's rule

53

Complementary Base Pairing - Either single strand (side) of DNA has any conceivable sequence of the four N bases. The sequence of bases on the opposite strand is exactly determined by the nature of these bases since A always is matched to T, and G is always matched to C. This is known as Chargaff's Rule. Thus, bases pairs are

COMPLEMENTARY

54

Anti-parallel arrangement of strands - The 5' end is the ____ functional group end of the nucleotide, the 3' is a _____ functional group within the ______

phosphate, hydroxyl, sugar

55

Anti-parallel arrangement of strands - In order for bases to line up so that they can bond across the strands, the strands are arranged with the exposed 3' and 5' ends _____ in opposite directions.

ALIGNED

56

Anti-parallel arrangement of strands - Nucleotides attach together at the___ of one nucleotide to the___of another.

5', 3'

57

Anti-parallel arrangement of strands - A single strand of DNA (or any strand of RNA) _____ will have an exposed 3' and an exposed 5' end.

ALWAYS

58

Semi-conservative nature of synthesis - in order to replicate any DNA molecule the ___ only needs to be "unzipped': by breaking the ___ bonds at the ____ pairs.

HELIX, H, base

59

Semi-conservative nature of synthesis - in order to replicate any DNA molecule the helix only needs to be "unzipped': by breaking the H bonds at the base pairs. Then, brand new complementary antiparallel strands can be copied from each of the original two strands, i.e., each original strand is a_____ for the formation of a complementary anti-parallel duplicate strand.

template

60

DNA replication does not start at one end of the molecule and move linearly. Instead, it occurs at_____ locations______and works in both ______ along the strands.

multiple, simultaneously, directions,

61

DNA replication happens by the actions of an _____, DNA _________ However, DNA polymerase can only move along a strand of DNA from the ____ towards the _____ end of the nucleotide

enzyme, polymerase, 3', 5'

62

by the actions of an enzyme, DNA polymerase. However, DNA polymerase can only move along a strand of DNA from the 3' towards the 5' end of the nucleotide, which means that it arranges the complementary nucleotides in the new strand in a ___ to ____ alignment.

5', 3'

63

Since DNA replication occurs in both directions, when the strand separate, they form an opening known as a

replication bubble

64

A series of bubbles open all along the DNA at positions called

initiation sites

65

At each end of the bubble is a

replication fork

66

Leading strand - The portions of the strands that are aligned 3' à 5' ___ from the initiation site and _____ the replication forks.

away, towards

67

Leading strand - The portions of the strands that are aligned 3' à 5' AWAY from the initiation site and TOWARDS the replication forks. Along ____ strands, continuous _____ of the ____ strands occurs

leading, synthesis, new

68

Leading strand - The portions of the strands that are aligned 3' à 5' AWAY from the initiation site and TOWARDS the replication forks. Along leading strands, continuous synthesis of the new strands occurs, because the ______ can continue to pull through this strand _____ as the replication fork ____ the strands and smoothly add new _______

polymerase, continuously, unwinds, DNA nucleotides

69

Lagging strand - The portions of the strands that are aligned 3' à 5' ______ the initiation site and _____ the replication forks.

towards, away from

70

Lagging strand - DNA polymerase begins to bring in DNA nucleotides and link them _____, which moves the new strand pieces ____ from the replication fork.

5'-3', away

71

Lagging strand - DNA polymerase begins to bring in DNA nucleotides and link them 5'-3', which moves the new strand pieces AWAY from the replication fork. As a result, the replication fork moves _____ from the new strands being formed on the lagging strands, creating a ____.

away, gap

72

Lagging strand - DNA polymerase begins to bring in DNA nucleotides and link them 5'-3', which moves the new strand pieces AWAY from the replication fork. As a result, the replication fork moves AWAY from the new strands being formed on the lagging strands, creating a gap. In order to fill the gap, the DNA ______ will need to "jump" back to the ____ and begin again bringing in DNA ________

polymerase, primers, nucleotides

73

Lagging strand - DNA polymerase begins to bring in DNA nucleotides and link them 5'-3', which moves the new strand pieces AWAY from the replication fork. As a result, the replication fork moves AWAY from the new strands being formed on the lagging strands, creating a gap. In order to fill the gap, the DNA polymerases will need to "jump" back to the primers and begin again bringing in DNA nucleotides. This creates a series of _______

DNA pieces

74

Lagging strand - DNA polymerase begins to bring in DNA nucleotides and link them 5'-3', which moves the new strand pieces AWAY from the replication fork. As a result, the replication fork moves AWAY from the new strands being formed on the lagging strands, creating a gap. In order to fill the gap, the DNA polymerases will need to "jump" back to the primers and begin again bringing in DNA nucleotides. This creates a series of DNA pieces. Thus, DNA replication on the lagging strand is termed

.

discontinuous synthesis.

75

Regardless of whether replication occurs on leading or lagging strands, eventually all pieces of ____ can be joined together to form___ new strands, so that each "daughter" DNA molecule contains one old and one new strand.

DNA, 2,

76

what are the 3 types of RNA

Ribosomal RNA, Transfer RNA, Messenger RNA

77

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - These are _____ _____ strands of RNA that form _____

highly, coiled, ribosomes

78

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - They function as the site in a ribosome where ____ are _______,(protein synthesis.)

polypeptides, assembled

79

Transfer RNA (tRNA) - These are found as ___ molecules in the _______

free, cytoplasm

80

Transfer RNA (tRNA) - There are over ___ different tRNA molecules in human cells.

40

81

Transfer RNA (tRNA) - They are shaped somewhat like a ____with ___ trailing strands.

cloverleaf, 2

82

Transfer RNA (tRNA) - Their function is to bring _________ to the ribosome and transfer them to the ribosome to be added to the _____ (protein) being _______

amino acids, polypeptide, synthesized

83

Messenger (mRNA) - Is created in the _____ (eukaryote) or _____ (prokaryote) as a copy of a _____.

nucleus, cytoplasm, gene

84

Messenger (mRNA) - It is a single strand of RNA whose length varies according to the ____ of the gene that is copied.

size

85

Messenger (mRNA) - The process of its formation is called

transcription

86

Transcription (RNA Formation) It is the process of formation of ______ RNA as one copy of one gene from a ____ molecule.

messenger, DNA

87

Transcription (RNA Formation)

A special enzyme, ________, copies one gene from one strand (the sense strand) of DNA.

RNA polymerase

88

Transcription (RNA Formation)

There are _____ and ______ regions on the DNA to tell the RNA polymerase where to _____ and _____ copying the gene.

promotor, terminator, start, stop

89

Transcription (RNA Formation)

RNA polymerase behaves just like DNA polymerase, making a new single strand by adding ____ nucleotides in an _____strand.

complementary, anti-parallel

90

Transcription (RNA Formation)

Just like DNA polymerase, it only copies from the____ towards the____position.

3', 5'

91

Transcription (RNA Formation)

When RNA polymerase reads T on DNA, it brings in A, when it reads C, it brings G, when it reads G, it brings C, but when it reads A, it brings____instead of T, since RNA does not possess thymine

U

92

Transcription (RNA Formation)

When the RNA polymerase gets to the_____ region, it lets the new ____ go.

terminator, mRNA

93

Transcription (RNA Formation)

The mRNA then moves to a ______ to begin the process of _______

ribosome, translation

94

Translation (Protein Synthesis) It is the process of converting the information in the mRNA which is formed by ___, _____ sequences, into a _____ chain or protein

specific, base, polypeptide

95

Translation (Protein Synthesis) It is the process of converting the information in the mRNA which is formed by specific base sequences, into a polypeptide chain or protein, thus translation is also known as

protein synthesis

96

Translation (Protein Synthesis) It occurs at _____ either within the ____ or at the_______ in eukaryotes.

ribosomes, cytoplasm, RER

97

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

There are ____ codons.

64

98

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Three of these codons are known as nonsense or stop codons

nonsense, stop

99

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Three of these codons are known as nonsense or stop codons because they are found at the end of the_____and signal the____ to ____ the _____ protein.

mRNA, end, building , specified

100

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

The other 61 specify a specific______ Since there are only ___ amino acids, some amino acids can be coded for by more than one codon.

amino acid, 20

101

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

One specific codon, AUG, not only signals for a specific amino acid called

methionine

102

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

One specific codon, AUG, not only signals for a specific amino acid called methionine, it also signifies the ____ of ______

start, protein synthesis

103

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

One specific codon, AUG, not only signals for a specific amino acid called methionine, it also signifies the start of protein synthesis, thus it is _____ the_____ codon on mRNA.

ALWAYS, 1st

104

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

If the anticodon and codon match, the amino acid will be

kept

105

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Once the process of protein synthesis has begun, codons are read at the ribosome by ribosomal RNA at a location called the ___ site.

A site

106

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

The correct amino acid is brought to the ribosome by tRNA which has an exposed three base sequence called an

anticodon

107

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

The mRNA, tRNA and amino acid then shift to the ___ site of the ribosome (at the same time, a new codon is "read" at the A site and another tRNA and amino acid come to the ribosome).

P

108

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

The amino acids at the P and A sites are then joined by a

peptide bond

109

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

The amino acids at the P and A sites are then joined by a peptide bond. The __RNA then shifts again, the __RNA from the P site is ___, and the mRNA, tRNA and amino acid at the A site (plus the free amino acid bound by a peptide bond)_____ again.

m, t, let go, shift

110

Translation (Protein Synthesis) The amino acids at the P and A sites are then joined by a peptide bond. The mRNA then shifts again, the tRNA from the P site is let go, and the mRNA, tRNA and amino acid at the A site (plus the free amino acid bound by a peptide bond) shift again. This continues until a ____ codon is read at which point the gene has been _____ into a _______ or ________.

stop, translated, polypeptide, protein

111

do you think bananas contain DNA?

yes or no

yes

112

do you think concrete contain DNA?

yes or no

no

113

do you think meat contain DNA?

yes or no

yes

114

do you think metal contain DNA?

yes or no

no

115

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

The information in the bases is read as base triplets called

codons

116

do you think spinach contain DNA?

yes or no

yes

117

do you think strawberries contain DNA?

yes or no

yes

118

Genomic DNA is retained inside the nucleus of a cell; however proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm of a cell, so how does the information stored in DNA enter the cytoplasm???---Through ______! Specifically ___________

RNA, messenger RNA (mRNA)

119

Inside the nucleus, DNA “unzips” to allow for RNA synthesis (__________).

transcription

120

Inside the nucleus, DNA “unzips” to allow for RNA synthesis (TRANSCRIPTION). The mRNA is then_____ and ____ into the ____

modified, exported, cytoplasm

121

Inside the nucleus, DNA “unzips” to allow for RNA synthesis (TRANSCRIPTION). The mRNA is then modified and exported into the cytoplasm. Once in the cytoplasm,_____ attach to the mRNA and begin ______ of the mRNA into _____.

ribosomes, translation, protein

122

you will differentially stain DNA and RNA in your cheek cell and observe the location of each inside the cell. We will be using _________ to stain cheek cells.

Methyl Green-Pyronine Y

123

on the slide with DNA stained with Methyl Green-Pyronine Y the nucleus was what found what color

green

124

on the slide with DNA stained with Methyl Green-Pyronine Y the cytoplasm was what found what color

clear

125

on the slide with RNA stained with Pyronine Y the nucleus was what found what color

pink

126

on the slide with RNA stained with Pyronine Y the cytoplasm was what found what color

light pink

127

What color did the DNA stain in your cell?

green

128

What color did the RNA stain in your cell?

pink

129

Given the strand of DNA below, what will be the complementary mRNA sequence? 3’- TAC GTA TGG ATA CTC TGG AAC CCT-5’

5'-AUG CAU ACC UAU GAG ACC UUG GGA-3'