A&P

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1

1) Interoceptors can detect what sensation? Select all that apply.

  1. a) blood gas levels
  2. b) stretch of organ walls
  3. c) grilled steak aroma
  4. d) taste of chocolate
  5. e) pain

a,b,e

2

2) Autonomic motor neurons regulate visceral activities by
1. increasing activities in effector tissue.
2. decreasing activities in effector tissue.
3. allowing bidirectional conduction across synapses.

  1. a) 1
  2. b) 2
  3. c) 3
  4. d) 1 and 2
  5. e) 1, 2, and 3

d

3

3) The autonomic nervous system is involved in controlling what effectors? Select all that apply.

  1. a) exocrine glands.
  2. b) skeletal muscle.
  3. c) cardiac muscle.
  4. d) smooth muscle.
  5. e) endocrine glands.

a,c,d,e

4

4) Which statements describe a preganglionic neuron? Select all that apply

  1. a) Has axons that exit the CNS in a cranial or spinal nerve.
  2. b) Has mostly myelinated axons.
  3. c) Forms the first part of an autonomic motor pathway.
  4. d) Has its cell body in the brain or spinal cord.
  5. e) Forms gap junctions with postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia.
  6. f) Has unmyelinated axons
  7. g) Releases acetylcholine
  8. h) pathway will lead to skeletal muscle

a,b,c,d,g

5

5) A postganglionic neuron in the ANS

  1. a) releases neurotransmitter that binds to the effector cell.
  2. b) is the first part of an autonomic motor pathway.
  3. c) has its cell body in the brain or spinal cord.
  4. d) has its axons exiting the CNS through cranial nerves.
  5. e) carries information into the sympathetic chain ganglia.

a

6

6) Which neurons would normally have the shortest axons? Select all that apply

  1. a) Somatic motor neurons
  2. b) Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
  3. c) Postganglionic sympathetic neurons
  4. d) Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
  5. e) Postganglionic parasympathetic neurons

d,e

7

7) Which of the following describes the sympathetic division of the ANS? Select all that apply.

  1. a) Ganglia primarily found in the head
  2. b) Stimulates sweat glands
  3. c) Synapses with smooth muscle in blood vessel walls
  4. d) Short preganglionic neurons
  5. e) Craniosacral output
  6. f) Always releases acetylcholine
  7. g) Releases hormones
  8. h) Increases digestive glands

b,c,d,g

8

8) Which of the following describes the parasympathetic division of the ANS? Select all that apply.

  1. a) Short preganglionic neurons
  2. b) Synapses with smooth muscle in blood vessels walls
  3. c) Vagus nerve output
  4. d) Ganglia found near visceral effectors
  5. e) Sacral spinal cord output
  6. f) Only releases acetylcholine
  7. g) Four cranial nerves involved
  8. h) Releases norepinephrine to effectors

c,d,e,f,g

9

9) Which structure is dually innervated?

  1. a) radial iris muscle
  2. b) spleen
  3. c) adipose tissue
  4. d) most blood vessels
  5. e) stomach

e

10

10) Place the events in order of sympathetic motor pathway.

  1. postganglionic neuron depolarizes
  2. acetylcholine binds to sweat gland’s muscarinic receptor
  3. postganglionic neuron releases acetylcholine
  4. neuron exits lumbar segment of spinal cord
  5. acetylcholine binds to nicotinic receptor
  6. neuron releases acetylcholine
  1. a) 2, 3, 1, 4, 6, 5
  2. b) 4, 6, 5, 1, 3, 2
  3. c) 6, 4, 5, 3, 2, 1
  4. d) 4, 5, 6, 1, 3, 2
  5. e) 5, 3, 4, 1, 2, 6

b

11

11) Which parasympathetic terminal ganglion is associated with the parotid salivary gland?

  1. a) Ciliary ganglion
  2. b) Pterygopalatine ganglion
  3. c) Submandibular ganglion
  4. d) Otic ganglion
  5. e) both otic and submandibular

d

12

12) The largest autonomic plexus is called the

  1. a) superior mesenteric plexus.
  2. b) renal plexus.
  3. c) cardiac plexus.
  4. d) celiac plexus.
  5. e) hypogastric plexus.

d

13

13) Which autonomic plexuses serve the large intestine? Select all that apply.

  1. a) Inferior mesenteric plexus
  2. b) Renal plexus
  3. c) Celiac plexus
  4. d) Hypogastric plexus
  5. e) Superior mesenteric plexus
  6. f) Pulmonary plexus
  7. g) Cardiac plexus

a,e

14

14) The ______contains sympathetic preganglionic axons and connects the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve with the sympathetic trunk ganglia.

  1. a) autonomic plexus
  2. b) Greater splanchnic nerve
  3. c) meningeal branch
  4. d) White rami communicanes
  5. e) Gray rami communicanes

d

15

15) [dropdown 1] rami communicantes contain [dropdown 2] axons and only are present in the thoracic and L1-3 region. The rami are formed from [dropdown 3] neurons.

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)White

b)Gray

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)Myelinated

b)Unmyelinated

Dropdown 3 choices:

a)Preganglionic sympathetic

b)Preganglionic parasympathetic

c)Postganglionic sympathetic

dPostganglionic parasympathetic

a,a,a

16

16) The two main neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system are

  1. a) noradrenaline and adrenaline.
  2. b) adrenaline and acetylcholine.
  3. c) norepinephrine and dopamine.
  4. d) norepinephrine and acetylcholine.
  5. e) acetylcholine and dopamine.

d

17

17) Acetylcholine is always released by _____ postganglionic neurons and is removed from the synaptic cleft at a _____ rate than norepinephrine.

  1. a) sympathetic; slower
  2. b) sympathetic; faster
  3. c) parasympathetic; slower
  4. d) parasympathetic; faster
  5. e) both parasympathetic and sympathetic; slower

d

18

18) Cholinergic receptors include

  1. a) nicotinic and adrenergic receptors
  2. b) muscarinic, alpha, and beta receptors
  3. c) adrenergic and nicotinic receptors
  4. d) nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
  5. e) alpha, beta, and nicotinic receptors

d

19

19) Autonomic tone is regulated by the

a) medulla oblongata.

b) cerebellum.

c) cerebrum.

d) vermis.

e) hypothalamus

e

20

20) Jennifer is at a stoplight and begins to accelerate into traffic when the light turns green. She stops suddenly as a truck runs the red light and is only a few inches away from her front bumper. Which effect would you NOT expect to see in Jennifer's body?

  1. a) Increased heart rate
  2. b) Airway dilation
  3. c) Increased pupil diameter
  4. d) Increased secretion of digestive juices
  5. e) Increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine

d

21

21) Which contributes to the longer lasting and more widespread effects observed with sympathetic activation versus parasympathetic activation?

  1. a) Norepinephrine is more slowly removed from synapses than ACh.
  2. b) Additional norepinephrine is released from the adrenal gland.
  3. c) Greater divergence occurs in sympathetic neural pathways.
  4. d) Blood flow to the hypothalamus is decreased when sympathetic activation occurs.
  5. e) The hypothalamus only increases one system’s tone at a time.
  6. f) All parts of the hypothalamus affect the sympathetic system, while only the anterior and medial parts control the parasympathetic.

a,b,c

22

22) [dropdown 1 innervates sweat glands over the entire body. [dropdown 2] stimulates urination and defecation. [dropdown 3] innervates the sex organs. [dropdown 4] increases gastric motility.

Dropdown choices:

a)Sympathetic system

b)Parasympathetic system

c)Both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

a,b,c,b

23
card image

23)What statements support that this diagram represents a somatic motor pathway and not an autonomic motor pathway? Select all that apply.

  1. a) neuron cell body is in anterior root
  2. b) there is one motor neuron in the pathway
  3. c) because the motor neuron is myelinated
  4. d) because the effector is a skeletal muscle
  5. e) the neuron exits the anterior root

b,d

24
card image

24) _____ is the neurotransmitter used by the pathway shown in the diagram and it causes ____.

  1. a) Norepinephrine; depolarization
  2. b) Acetylcholine; depolarization
  3. c) Epinephrine; depolarization
  4. d) Norepinephrine; hyperpolarization
  5. e) Acetylcholine; hyperpolarization

b

25

25) Neurons leaving the superior cervical ganglion primarily serve what regions? Select all that apply
a) Abdominal

  1. b) Pelvic
  2. c) Heart
  3. d) Head
  4. e) Lungs

c,d

26

26) Which sympathetic ganglion supplies the stomach with postganglionic neurons?

  1. a) Renal ganglion
  2. b) Superior cervical ganglion
  3. c) Celiac ganglion
  4. d) Inferior mesenteric ganglion
  5. e) Ciliary ganglion

c

27

27) Which nerve supplies the inferior mesenteric ganglion with preganglionic neurons?

  1. a) Lumbar splanchnic nerve
  2. b) Lesser splanchnic nerve
  3. c) Greater splanchnic nerve
  4. d) Cardiac accelerator
  5. e) Phrenic nerve

a

28

28) The heart receives autonomic nervous input from which structures? Select all that apply.
a) superior cervical ganglia

  1. b) middle cervical ganglia
  2. c) inferior cervical ganglia
  3. d) celiac ganglia
  4. e) aorticorneal ganglia
  5. f) otic ganglia
  6. g) vagus pathway

a,b,c,g

29

29) Which cranial nerves contain preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic motor pathway to the salivary glands? Select all that apply.
a) Oculomotor (III) nerve

  1. b) Facial (VII) nerve
  2. c) Glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve
  3. d) Vagus (X) nerve

b,c

30

30) Postganglionic neurons from the otic ganglion supply the ____, and release ____.

a) parotid gland; acetylcholine

b) parotid gland; norepinephrine

c) sublingual gland; acetylcholine.

d) sublingual gland; norepinephrine.

e) submandibular gland; acetylcholine

f) submandibular gland; norepinephrine

a

31

31) Which of the following structures provides innervation for the external genitals? Select all that apply.

  1. a) Oculomotor (III) nerve
  2. b) Facial (VII) nerve
  3. c) Glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve
  4. d) Vagus (X) nerve
  5. e) Pelvic splanchnic nerve
  6. f) Hypogastric plexus
  7. g) Greater splanchnic nerve

e,f

32

32) Parasympathetic innervation of the liver occurs through

  1. a) oculomotor (III) nerve
  2. b) facial (VII) nerve
  3. c) glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve
  4. d) vagus (X) nerve
  5. e) pelvic splanchnic nerve.

d

33

33) The sympathetic system supplies the heart and lungs when preganglionic neurons synapse with postganglionic neurons between ____.

  1. a) T1-T4 trunk ganglion
  2. b) T5-T9 trunk ganglion
  3. c) T10-T11 trunk ganglion
  4. d) three cervical ganglion
  5. e) L1-L4 ganglion

a

34
card image

34) A doctor makes an injection of medication to relieve upper abdominal pain due to chronic pancreatitis. What area in the diagram is the nerve block targeting?

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) M
  5. e) F

b

35
card image

35) Stimulation of the fibers associated with which plexus in the diagram can dramatically alter the pace and force of heart contraction?.

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) H
  4. d) I
  5. e) J

d

36
card image

36) In Hirschsprung’s disease, the baby is missing nerve cells that would innervate the large intestine. In the diagram, failure to innervate from which plexus would be the main cause of the disease?

  1. a) K
  2. b) L
  3. c) M
  4. d) F
  5. e) N

b,c

37
card image

37) Postganglionic neurons in lumbar splanchnic nerves will extend to which plexuses in the diagram? Select all that apply.

  1. a) J
  2. b) K
  3. c) D
  4. d) F
  5. e) N
  6. f) M
  7. g) G

e,f

38
card image

44) What statements correctly describe the autonomic pathway shown in the diagram? Select all that apply.

  1. a) There are two neurons in the motor pathway
  2. b) The neuron’s cell body is located in the anterior gray horn
  3. c) The neuron’s cell body is located in the lateral gray horn
  4. d) The two neurons synapse at a ganglion
  5. e) The effectors are involuntary
  6. f) The effectors are voluntary
  7. g) Both ACh and NE are released
  8. h) ACh is released at the effector

a,c,d,e,g

39

45) In a sympathetic division motor pathway, which neurotransmitter is released at the kidney?

  1. a) Norepinephrine
  2. b) Acetylcholine
  3. c) Epinephrine
  4. d) Dopamine
  5. e) Serotonin

a

40

46) Which neurotransmitter is released at the autonomic ganglion by the preganglionic neuron?

  1. a) Norepinephrine
  2. b) Acetylcholine
  3. c) Epinephrine
  4. d) Dopamine
  5. e) Serotonin

b

41

47) Which neurotransmitter is released at the adrenal gland by the preganglionic neuron in the sympathetic pathway?

  1. a) Norepinephrine
  2. b) Acetylcholine
  3. c) Epinephrine
  4. d) Dopamine
  5. e) Serotonin

b

42

48) In a parasympathetic division motor pathway, which neurotransmitter is released at the effector?

  1. a) Norepinephrine
  2. b) Acetylcholine
  3. c) Epinephrine
  4. d) Dopamine
  5. e) Serotonin

b

43
card image

49) What statements support that this diagrams represents only one specific division of the autonomic nervous system? Select all that apply.

  1. a) Only sympathetic division has two motor neurons in the pathway.
  2. b) Parasympathetic division only releases ACh and sympathetic releases ACh and NE
  3. c) Parasympathetic has a long preganglionic neuron and sympathethic has a short preganglionic neuron.
  4. d) Effectors in both divisions are involuntary.
  5. e) The preganglionic neuron axon in both exits the anterior root.
  6. f) Parasympathetic has a short preganglionic neuron and sympathethic has a long preganglionic neuron.
  7. g) Both divisions always release ACh at the autonomic ganglia and the effectors.

b,c

44
card image

50) Which structure carries 80% of the parasympathetic outflow??

  1. a) A
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) F
  5. e) G

a

45

51) Splanchnic nerves are primarily

  1. a) sympathetic pregagnlionic fibers
  2. b) parasympathetic pregagnlionic fibers
  3. c) sympathetic postgagnlionic fibers
  4. d) parasympathetic postgagnlionic fibers

a

46

52) Which ganglia are associated with thoracolumbar outflow? Select all that apply.
a) paravertebral ganglia

  1. b) prevertebral ganglia
  2. c) intramural ganglia
  3. d) terminal ganglia
  4. e) postvertebral ganglia

a,b

47

53) The renal plexus contains [dropdown 1], but only the [dropdown 2] innervates the kidney.

a)sympathetic neurons

b)parasympathetic neurons

c)both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons

c,a

48

54) Cholinergic neurons release ___ and adrenergic neurons release___.

  1. a) ACh; NE
  2. b) ACh; ACh
  3. c) NE; ACh
  4. d) NE; NE
  5. e) Epinephrine; ACh

a

49

55) Muscarinic receptors are associated with [dropdown 1]. Nicotinic receptors are associated with [dropdown 2]. Beta receptors are associated with [dropdown 3].

Dropdown choices:

a)sympathetic nervous system

b)parasympathetic nervous system

c)both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

c,c,a

50

56) [dropdown 1] receptors are always found on the membrane of the postganglionic cell body. [dropdown 2] receptors are only found in brown adipose tissue used for thermogenesis. [dropdown 3] receptors are located on the sweat gland cells of only the palms and soles.

a)Alpha 1

b)Alpha 2

c)Beta 1

d)Beta 2

e)Beta 3

f)Muscarinic

g)Nicotinic

g,e,a

51

57) [dropdown 1] receptors cause excitation in cardiac muscle. [dropdown 2] receptors cause vasodilation in blood vessels to the heart. [dropdown 3] receptors stimulate chromaffin cells to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.

a)Alpha 1

b)Alpha 2

c)Beta 1

d)Beta 2

e)Beta 3

f)Muscarinic

g)Nicotinic

c,d,g

52
card image

58) Which plexus shown in the diagram supplies the bronchial tree?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) F

b

53
card image

59) Identify the structure labeled 2 in the diagram.

  1. a) somatic motor neuron
  2. b) parasympathetic preganglionic neuron
  3. c) parasympathetic postganglionic neuron
  4. d) sympathetic preganglionic neuron
  5. e) sympathetic postganglionic neuron

b

54
card image

60) Identify the structure labeled 3 in the diagram.

  1. a) somatic motor neuron.
  2. b) parasympathetic preganglionic neuron.
  3. c) parasympathetic postganglionic neuron.
  4. d) sympathetic preganglionic neuron.
  5. e) sympathetic postganglionic neuron

c

55
card image

61) Where do the structures labeled 1 and 3 in the diagram meet?

  1. a) paravertebral ganglia
  2. b) prevertebral ganglia
  3. c) terminal ganglia
  4. d) trunk ganglia
  5. e) chain ganglia

c

56

62) ___ is characterized by an exaggerated response of the sympathetic division of the ANS that occurs in most individuals with spinal cord injury at or above T6.

a) Raynaud’s phenomenon

b) Autonomic dysreflexia

c) Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

d) Diabetic neuropathy

e) Horner’s Syndrome

b

57

63) Which disorder is a type of neuropathy often caused by long term diabetes mellitus?

  1. a) Raynaud’s phenomenon
  2. b) Autonomic dysreflexia
  3. c) Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
  4. d) Diabetic neuropathy
  5. e) Horner’s Syndrome

d

58

64) Which disorder involves the loss of sympathetic innervation to one side of the face due to inherited mutation, injury or disease?

  1. a) Raynaud’s phenomenon
  2. b) Autonomic dysreflexia
  3. c) Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
  4. d) Diabetic neuropathy
  5. e) Horner’s Syndrome

e

59

66) Thoracolumbar is another name for which division of ANS?

  1. a) Parasympathetic nervous system
  2. b) Sympathetic nervous system
  3. c) Somatic nervous system
  4. d) Peripheral nervous system
  5. e) Central nervous system

b

60

67) Increased activity of [dropdown 1] decreases heart rate. Dilation of air passageways during exercise is a result of the [dropdown 2]. Vasoconstriction of salivary gland arterioles is caused by the [dropdown 3].

a)parasympathetic system

b)sympathetic system

c)both parasympathetic and sympathetic system

a,b,b

61

68) The [dropdown 1] endocrine gland is directly innervated by sympathetic preganglionic axons. The [dropdown 2] cells act like [dropdown 3] and are excited by [dropdown 4].

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)pituitary

b)pineal gland

c)pancreas

d)adrenal thyroid

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)chromaffin cells

b)ciliary cells

c)splanchnic cells

d)medullae cells

Dropdown 3 choices:

a)preganglionic neurons

b)postganglionic neurons

Dropdown 4 choices:

a)acetylcholine

b)epinephrine

c)norepinephrine

d)dopamine

d,a,b,a

62

69) Which of the following types of adrenergic receptors are only found in brown adipose tissue where their activation stimulates heat production?

  1. a) α1-adrenergic
  2. b) α2-adrenergic
  3. c) β1-adrenergic
  4. d) β2-adrenergic
  5. e) β3-adrenergic

e

63

70) Dilation of the pupil occurs by stimulation of [dropdown 1] and constriction of the pupil occurs by stimulation of [dropdown 2].

a)α1-adrenergic

b)α2-adrenergic

c)β1-adrenergic

d)β2-adrenergic

e)β3-adrenergic

f)nicotinic

g)muscarinic

a,g

64

71) The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla possess what type of receptor that makes them responsive to the ACh released by preganglionic sympathetic neurons?

  1. a) muscarinic receptors
  2. b) nicotinic receptors
  3. c) β1-adrenergic
  4. d) β2-adrenergic
  5. e) β3-adrenergic

b

65

72) Which of the following statements describes a common response of an autonomic effector during the “fight-or-flight” response?

a) Gastric motility and secretory activity increases.

b) Blood vessels serving skeletal muscles constrict.

c) Adipose tissues stores away triglycerides for later use.

d) The pupils of the eyes dilate.

e) Blood vessels serving the kidneys and digestive organs dilate

d

66

73) Which of the following lists the components of an autonomic reflex arc in the proper sequence of activation?

  1. a) receptor – sensory neuron – integrating center – motor neuron – effector
  2. b) receptor – motor neuron – integrating center – sensory neuron – effector
  3. c) effector – sensory neuron – integrating center – motor neuron – receptor
  4. d) integrating center – receptor – sensory neuron – motor neuron – effector
  5. e) receptor – sensory neuron – motor neuron – effector – integrating center

a

67

74) One of the main differences between a somatic reflex and autonomic reflex is the type of effectors that are activated. The effectors in somatic reflexes are _____, while the effectors in autonomic reflexes are _____.

a) skeletal muscles; smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

b) striated muscles; smooth muscle and glands

c) skeletal muscles and glands; smooth muscle and cardiac muscle

d) glands; skeletal muscles, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle

e) smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; skeletal muscles

a

68

75) Which the following regions of the brain serve as the major control and integration center of the ANS?

  1. a) cerebrum
  2. b) cerebellulum
  3. c) thalamus
  4. d) hypothalamus
  5. e) pituitary

d

69

76) In order for sympathetic preganglionic axons to reach prevertebral (collateral) ganglia, they must travel through

  1. White rami communicantes
  2. Gray rami communicantes
  3. Splanchnic nerve
  4. Terminal ganglia
  5. Cephalic periarterial nerves

c

70

77) Which neuron is most likely to be adrenergic?

  1. Sympathetic preganglionic
  2. Sympathetic postganglionic
  3. Parasympathetic preganglionic
  4. Parasympathetic postganglionic
  5. Both Sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic

b

71

78) When acetylcholine binds to [dropdown 1] receptors on postganglionic neurons or chromaffin cells it is always [dropdown 2].

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)muscarinic receptors

b)nicotinic receptors

c)β1-adrenergic

d)β2-adrenergic

e)β3-adrenergic

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)Inhibitory

b)Excitatory

b,b

72

79) Beta blockers are used to

  1. a) prevent a rise in heart rate.
  2. b) prevent a drop in heart rate.
  3. c) dilate pupils.
  4. d) prevent sweating .
  5. e) decrease dry eye syndrome.

a

73
  1. The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system have antagonistic effects on all of the following effector structures EXCEPT
  1. iris muscles
  2. gastrointestinal tract
  3. bronchioles
  4. blood vessels in skeletal muscles
  5. liver

d

74

81) If a doctor administers atropine IV, a muscarinic antagonist, followed by a high dose of ACh, you still see an increase in heart rate. Where is the ACh acting?

  1. a) Nicotinic receptors of the postganglionic sympathetic neuron causing NE release to the heart, increasing heartrate.
  2. b) Nicotinic receptors of the postganglionic parasympathetic neuron causing ACh release to the heart, increasing heartrate
  3. c) Nicotinic receptors of the postganglionic parasympathetic neuron preventing ACh release to the heart, increasing heartrate
  4. d) Muscarinic receptors of the postganglionic sympathetic neuron causing NE release to the heart, increasing heartrate.

a

75

82) You are just about to perform a clinical procedure for the first time and your palms begin to sweat. This is due to

  1. a) increased sympathetic stimulation of sweat glands possessing alpha 1 receptors.
  2. b) increased sympathetic stimulation of sweat glands possessing beta 2 receptors.
  3. c) increased parasympathetic stimulation of sweat glands possessing nicotinic receptors.
  4. d) increased parasympathetic stimulation of sweat glands possessing muscarinic receptors.
  5. e) increased sympathetic stimulation of sweat glands possessing muscarinic receptors.

a

76

83) To decrease heart rate, the [dropdown 1] division causes a release of [dropdown 2] to [dropdown 3] receptors.

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)parasympathetic

b)sympathetic

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)acetylcholine

b)norepinephrine

Dropdown 3 choices:

a)α1-adrenergic

b)α2-adrenergic

c)β1-adrenergic

d)β2-adrenergic

e)β3-adrenergic

f)nicotinic

g)muscarinic

a,a,g

77

84) To decrease urine volume, the [dropdown 1] division causes a release of [dropdown 2] to [dropdown 3] receptors causing vasoconstriction of the kidney arterioles involved in filtration.

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)parasympathetic

b)sympathetic

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)acetylcholine

b)norepinephrine

Dropdown 3 choices:

a)α1-adrenergic

b)α2-adrenergic

c)β1-adrenergic

d)β2-adrenergic

e)β3-adrenergic

f)nicotinic

g)muscarinic

b,b,a

78

85) Which statements about receptors and the neurotransmitters are true?

  1. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors respond to NE
  2. Adrenergic receptors respond to ACh
  3. ACh binding to nicotinic receptors is excitatory
  4. Adrenergic receptors are located on postganglionic neuron cell bodies
  5. NE can cause an excitatory or inhibitory effect on effectors
  6. Nicotine can mimic ACh
  1. 1, 3, 4, 6
  2. 1, 3, 5, 6
  3. 3, 5, 6
  4. 2, 4, 5
  5. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

c