MSK Diag Mgt 7220 Exam II - ultrasound & phonophoresis

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1

frequency range for therapeutic ultrasound

.7 to 3.3 MHz

2

therapeutic range of US intensity

.25 to 2.0 W/cm2

3

beam non uniformity ratio

spatial peak intensity: spatial average intensity

4

dissipation of energy is

attenuation

5

if target tissue is superficial choose _____ MHz frequency. If target tissue is deep choose ____ MHz frequency.

3 Hz; 1 Hz

6

rate of heating will be (higher/lower) with 1 MHz or 3 MHz.

3 MHz will heat faster

7

typical beam non uniformity ration

between 2:1 and 6:1

8

why does absorption increase with increased frequency?

higher frequency - the molecules move faster against friction and heat is produced.

9

absorption is highest in tissues with ______ content like _____

high protein; ligaments, tendons, fascia, joint capsules and scar tissue

10

absorption is lower in tissues with _____ water content like blood and fat

high

11

if you want heat tx, you choose continuous mode or pulsed mode?

continuous

12

how do you calculate duty cycle?

if US is on for 2 ms in a 8 ms pulse period, what is the duty cycle?

on time / (on time = off time) x 100%

25%

13

max depth of absorption for therapeutic ultrasound (range for 1.0 MHz)

2-5 cm

14

which frequency might you use on the patellar tendon, MCL, or brachialis insertion? How deep are you penetrating?

3 MHz

.8 - 1.6 cm

15

which frequency might you use on the rotator cuff, vastus intermedius and gastroc? how deep are you penetrating?

1 MHz

2-5 cm

16

improved circulation, extensibility of collagen, and collagen synthesis are thermal or non thermal effects?

thermal

17

calcium deposit reabsorption, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are thermal or non thermal effects?

thermal effects

18

Increased NCV, decreased spasm, and pain control are thermal or non thermal effects

thermal effects

19

diffusional changes across cell membrane which alter cellular activity and function (cavitation) are associated with thermal or non thermal US

non thermal

20

mixed research shows that edema resolution, tissue regeneration, and fracture healing may be associated with thermal or non thermal effects of US

non thermal

21

increased mast cell degranulation, increased protein synthesis by fibroblasts, and increased intracellular Ca are associated with thermal or non thermal effects of US

non thermal

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guidelines for fracture healing with US

.15 W/cm^2, 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle, 15-20 minutes daily

26

contraindications - do not apply US to these areas

over the eye, over the heart, over the pregnant uterus, over tests, over cancer, over a pacemaker

27

contraindications of US

acute conditions

active bleeding

decreased sensation to heat and pain

decreased circulation or vascular insufficiency

thrombophlebitis

fractures

infection

over s/p laminectomy

growth plates in children

28

how large should the treatment area be compared to the transducer?

the treatment area should be 1.5-2 times the size of the transducer

29

internal effects of stationary US head

platelet aggregation, cavitations, venous endothelial damage, stasis of blood

30

what needs to be documented when administering US?

who and what machine

what area - size and anatomical location

intensity and duration

technique and coupling medium

any precautions or contraindications

31

what is non contact low frequency ultrasound used for?

cleansing and debriding for wound healing