Ch. 19 Study Module

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1

best describes a eukaryotic promoter?

  • It is found upstream of the gene and contains the TATA box.
2

true about protein production in eukaryotes?

  • Splicing patterns in mRNA are critical to protein formation.
3

Proteins that stop or slow the cell cycle when conditions are unfavorable for cell division are called ________.

tumor suppressors

4

Which of the following statements best describes proto-oncogenes?

  • When mutated, they become oncogenes, driving the cell cycle forward and promoting cancer.
5

What are histones?

Histones are proteins associated with DNA to form chromatin.

6

best describes an enhancer?

Region of DNA that may be located more than 100,000 base pairs away

7

Which of the following statements about the p53 protein (a tumor suppressor) is true?

  • It activates genes that induce apoptosis in cells with extensively damaged DNA.
8

The life span of an mRNA molecule can be controlled by the activities of __________.

the RISC protein complex

9

Which of the following terms is defined as a regulatory sequence in eukaryotes that is a specific sequence for RNA polymerase to bind to?

Core promoter

10

What are two mechanisms used for turning genes off in eukaryotic cells?

  • Genes are turned off when chromatin remains condensed or when a regulatory protein binds to a silencer.
11

DNA wrapped in histones in the event of transcription?

DNA wrapped around histones is not transcribed and is protected from degradation by nucleases.

12

Regulatory transcription factors such as enhancers are binding sites for _______ that regulate transcription, whereas silencers are binding sites for _____________ that regulate transcription.

activators; repressors

13

tightly coiled DNA-protein complex?

Chromatin

14

Which eukaryotic protein binds to the promoter-proximal region of only some genes?

Transcriptional activators binding to enhancers

15

Regulatory sequences that are found thousands of base pairs downstream from the promoter and activate transcription are termed ________.

enhancers

16

will speed up the rate of transcription?

activators

17

is involved in the first step of initiating transcription?

TATA- binding protein (TBP)

18

Which of the following will decrease the rate of transcription?

Repressors