Ch 16 Viral Diseases of the Internal Organs and Nervous System

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1

Viral Diseases of the Blood and Lymphatic System are acquired by _____ _____, _______ _______ (needle sticks), or _______ _______

sexual contact, mechanical means, arthropod bites

2

What are two types of Herpes Virus?

Infectious mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus

3

What are the 4 Hepatitis viruses?

›Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)

›Hepatitis C

›Hepatitis D and G

4

What are the 5 known Viral hemorrhagic fevers?

  1. Yellow fever
  2. Dengue fever
  3. Ebola hemorrhagic fever
  4. Marburg hemorrhagic fever
  5. Lassa fever
5

Infectious Mononucleosis—Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) žAttacks_____, primarily B-cells, and create ____ ____

WBC's

Downey cells

6

What virus is

žCommon in young adults—kissing disease, spread by saliva contact

žSymptoms—a sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fever

žRuns for 3-4 weeks

žComplications—heart defects, facial paralysis, rupture of spleen

Infectious Mononucleosis—Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

7

Infectious Mononucleosis—Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) patients žRecoverers are carriers for several _____

months

8

True or False

žThere is No vaccine and no effective drugs for Mono—Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

TRUE

9

Burkitt lymphoma— Is a ____ of connective tissue of ___

tumor, jaw

10

What part of the world is Burkitt lymphoma most common?

AFRICA

11

žWhat viral disease arising in Africa, is mosquito-borne. It does not spread person to person. It causes joint pain, fever and nausea. There have been 48 cases in Texas in 2014, with 4 in Dallas County, 6 in Tarrant County, 5 in Denton County, and 2 in Collin County.

Chikungunya

12

Burkitt lymphoma žHas transduced _____, in areas where malaria is common

oncogene

13

What disease is an emerging and opportunistic

žNaked, +ss RNA virus of Caliciviridae

žSimilar to Hep. A, transmitted fecal-orally

Viral Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract—Hepatitis E

14

Cytomegalovirus Disease--(CMV) Infects cells of ______ _______, _______, or _______

salivary glands, liver, epithelium

15

True or False CMV is NOT asymptomatic, or mononucleosis-like

FALSE

CMV žMay be asymptomatic, or mononucleosis-like

16

In CMV disease Organism remains _____ in genome

latent

17

What disease causes congenital disease in infants born to infected women (C in TORCH diseases)

Cytomegalovirus Disease--CMV

18

žWhat disease Becomes productive in immunocompromised patients, hastens development of AIDS

Cytomegalovirus Disease--CMV

19

What is the smallest known DNA virus, icosahedral

Transmitted through body fluids, needles, tattooing, acupuncture, ear piercing, endoscopes, dental instruments, and dialysis tubing, and by sexual transmission (vaginal, oral, or anal)

žLong incubation in liver, 4 wks to 6 mo, but no damage during incubation

žHas nucleocapsid surrounded by Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and envelope with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)

Hepatitis B—Serum hepatitis

žHepadanviridae

20

What disease have the following symptoms?

žasymptomatic in children, fatigue, anorexia, taste changes, dark urine, clay colored feces, tenderness in URQ

žRecovery—3-4 mo. After onset of jaundice, patient may remain a carrier

žExtensive liver damage may occur, leading to cirrhosis, and liver cancer

žOften nosocomial, vaccine available for all ages, has reduced incidence by 90%

Hepatitis B

21

Which hepatitis has the following characteristics?

žFlaviviridae, +ss RNA with reverse transcriptase, enveloped

Hepatitis C (HCV)

22

what disease has the following žSymptoms—primary infection may be asymptomatic, 50-80% develop a symptomless chronic infection which destroys the liver, especially when combined with drug use or alcoholism

žPrimary cause of liver transplants

žAssociated with chronic liver disease and cancer

Hepatitis C (HCV)

23

What hepatitis žis RNA + protein, called the delta antigen

žIt is transmitted separately, and only infectious when combined with HBV, called a “piggy-back virus”

Hepatitis D (HDV + HBV)

24

Hepatitis D žProduces a severe disease with higher _____, also more likely to lead to _____and chronic ____ disease

mortality, cirrhosis, liver

25

What hepatitis is Enveloped, ss RNA Flaviviridae

žTransmitted by blood products, sexual contact

infection

Hepatitis G (HGV)

26

The Viral Diseases Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHF’s) are žcaused by 4 families of ____ viruses

RNA

27

What are some of the common symptoms of Viral Diseases Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHF’s)

žvascular system damage (rash, bleeding gums, mucus membranes, and internal organs)

žCan be severe and deadly

žSummary Chart on p. 519

28

What was the first human disease associated with a virus

žSome recover, but 15-25% go on to severe nausea, hiccups, black vomit, liver damage and jaundice which gives the disease its name

žHemorrhaging and delirium precede coma, and death

Yellow Fever

29

Arbovirus, Flaviviridae, was brought to America with the slave trade from Africa, endemic in Africa and South America,

Arbovirus, Flaviviridae, was brought to America with the slave trade from Africa, endemic in Africa and South America,

30

Monkeys are vectors for?

Yellow fever

31

Yellow Feverž

Mosquito bite infects, creating sudden ____ symptoms of a ____, _____, and muscle pain for 3-5 days

acute

headache, fever

32

True or False

žNo treatment, but vaccine is available for Yellow Fever

TRUE

33

What is the žMost common arboviral disease of humans?

-žFour types of virus, carried by mosquitos

Dengue Fever

34

What disease has the following Symptoms—sudden onset, high fever, prostration, sharp muscle and joint pain (breakbone fever), lasts about a week

Dengue Fever

35

žInfection with ___ of the four viruses causes dengue hemorrhagic fever, with _____, _____ and shock

two, rash, vomiting

36

TRUE OR FALSE

There is žNo treatment, must control vector (mosquito) for Dengue Fever

TRUE

37

žWhile Dengue Fever is NOT spread person to person, 288 cases were recorded in the US in 2014. Of these, 16 were in Texas, including Dallas , Collin, Denton, and Tarrant counties. It is believed that most if not all of these cases were imported from ______ ____ ____.

outside the US

38

TRUE OR FALSE

Dengue Fever is spread person to person

FALSE

not spread person to person

it is spread by mosquitos

39

What is Extremely deadly, 88% mortality in first outbreak, 50-90% subsequently

žFiloviridae, ss RNA, zoonosis, extremely contagious from body fluids

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF)

40

What virus has the following symptoms?

ž—fever, headache, joint & muscle aches, sore throat, weakness, followed by diarrhea, vomiting, rash, bleeding

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF)

41

In Ebola the žVirus attacks______ cells, causing massive _____ ______

epithelial, internal bleeding

42

EBOLA FACT

žAs of Nov. 7, 2014, there were 8,168 confirmed cases in West Africa, and 4,960 deaths. One person whose case of Ebola was imported died in Dallas, two of his nurses were infected, both survived. As of Nov. 10, 2014, Dallas is Ebola-free.

EBOLA FACT

žAs of Nov. 7, 2014, there were 8,168 confirmed cases in West Africa, and 4,960 deaths. One person whose case of Ebola was imported died in Dallas, two of his nurses were infected, both survived. As of Nov. 10, 2014, Dallas is Ebola-free.

43

What disease is described below?

žFiloviridae, -ss RNA virus, initially carried by green monkeys, zoonosis, possibly in fruit bats

žIncubation—5-10 days, symptoms similar to Ebola, but not as fatal, but health care workers at risk

žNo current treatment

Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (MHF)

44
card image

What disease has the following characteristics?

Arenaviridae, -ss RNA virus, zoonosis

Lassa Fever

45

žA patient comes in with the following Symptoms—High fever, prostration, bloody hemorrhagic lesions, internal hemorrhaging, lasts for weeks

What can he be diagnosed with?

Lassa Fever

46

What disease is treated with žRibivirin

Lassa Fever

47

What Viral Diseases are of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis)

Hepatits E

Rotavirus

Norovirus

Enterovirus

48

žwhat disease is Picornaviridae, small, naked, icosahedral, + ss RNA virion, very resistant to chemical and physical agents

Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis)

49

Hepatitis A is an _____ inflammatory disease of the _____, transmitted by fecaly contaminated _____, ______ , or ______ grown in contaminated _______

Acute, liver,

food, water, or shellfish grown in contaminated water

50

What disease has a ž2-4 wk incubation, causes anorexia, malaise, intermittent fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, tenderness in URQ, jaundice, lasts several weeks, with relapses, so long period of convalescence needed

Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis)

51

What disease is treated with the following

žTreatment—prolonged rest, prevention within 2 weeks of infection by vaccination with antibodies

Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis)

52

How can Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis) be prevented?

žHand washing and personal hygiene are critical to prevent transmission

53

Delete

Delete

54

What disease is an emerging and opportunistic

žNaked, +ss RNA virus of Caliciviridae

žSimilar to Hep. A, transmitted fecal-orally

Viral Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract—Hepatitis E

55

Viral Gastroenteritis occurs in what two forms?

žOccurs in both endemic and epidemic forms

56

TRUE OR FALSE

Viral Gastroenteritis

Is žFound world-wide, affects all ages

žSecond most common disease in U.S.

true

57

The following are characteristics of what disease?

›Watery diarrhea, cramping

›Nausea, vomiting, low grade fever

›Headache, malaise

Viral Gastroenteritis

58

Viral Gastroenteritis is ______ in infants, the elderly, and the ____________

deadly, immunocompromised

59

What disease is Sometimes called “stomach flu”

žCaused by three primary viruses

Viral Gastroenteritis

60

What infectious disease is Naked, circular, segmented ds DNA with 2 layers of capsid, Reoviridae

žDeadly gastroenteritis in children, most common Oct.-April

Rotavirus Infections

61

What infectious disease is transmitted by žfecal-oral, lasts 3-8 days incubation

Rotavirus Infections

62

How is Rotavirus Infections treated?

Rehydration

63
card image

How many vaccines are there for Rotavirus

žTwo new vaccines for protection

64

What is the most common infection caused of non-bacterial gastroenteritis?

Norovirus Infection

65

What infection is transmitted by fecal-oral and aerosol from throw up, and can survive on surfaces for more than a week?

Norovirus Infection

66

-This infection tends to occur in the summer.

-It's characteristics are Caliciviridae, naked, icosahedral, +ss RNA, they have seven groups

-It's highly contagious,

10 Virions are required for disease, 24-48 hr incubation disease last 24 hrs

What is Norovirus

67

žWhat infection is Small, icosahedral, +ss RNA, from the Picornaviridae dam

Coxackie virus is an example,have many strains

Enterovirus Infection

68

What infections occurs in the Summer AND Fall

Enterovirus infection

69
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What infection May trigger type I diabetes in susceptible children

žCause infantile diarrhea, most common in males and children

žOccurs in crowded conditions, swimming and wading pools, highly infectious

žCalled hand,foot, & mouth disease, because of bumps which can appear there

Enterovirus Infection

70

Viral Diseases of the Nervous System cause significant _________ damage and death

žThree viruses produce the most recognizable and feared diseases

ž

- neurological

71

What Virus has the highest mortality rate for any disease

Rabies

72
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What virus is Ss RNA virion of Rhabdoviridae family, and is bullet shaped?

Rabies

73

žWhat Virus is transmitted by blood, saliva, or urine of an infected mammal

-žIncubation depends on dose, 6 days-1 year

Rabies

74

What Virus has the following symptoms..

žtingling, burning, coldness at bite, fever, headache, muscle tension, agressiveness, paralysis, usually starting in the throat

žDeath occurs in days, usually due to respiratory paralysis

Rabies

75

What are the forms of rabies fond in Animals?

Furious OR Dumb

76

What virus has the following characteristics

žPicornaviridae, among smallest virions, icosahedral, +ss RNA genome

Polio Virus

77

žWhat Virus is Transmitted in contaminated water and food, multiply in lymphoid tissue, cause nausea, vomiting, cramps

-If blood is invaded, cause meningitis, which may include paralysis

Polio Virus

78

žIn Polio Infection occurs in he _______—bulbar polio, most severe

medulla,

79

Which type of Polio virus causes epidemics, and sometimes paralyzes?

Type 1 Polio Virus

80

What type of Polio virus cause sporadically, but always paralyzes?

Type 2 Polio

81

What type of Polio usually remains in the intestine?

Type 3

82

ž_______ vaccines protect against all three types of Polio

Trivalent

83

In what year was there a big effort to eliminate polio?

žOnly 20 countries now affected, found in _____ and _____

1988

Africa and Asia

84

žPostpolio syndrome (PPS)—reoccurrence of initial polio symptoms occur when victims reach ______ ___

›May be due to _________ reaction

middle age

autoimmune

85

What Viruses is transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that produce encephalitis—zoonosis

žMost common in warmer weather when insects are active

žFound world wide, can be sporadic or epidemic

žMost common in U.S.—St. Louis Encephalitis, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Powassan virus, La Crosse encephalitis, and West Nile Virus

Arboviral Encephalitis

86

What virus has the following symptoms

Sudden high fever, severe headache, stiff neck,disorientation, drowsiness, convulsions before coma and may cause death

Arborvirial Encephalitis

87

Patients that recover from Arborviral Encephalitis can experience _____ and _____ _______

Paralysis and Mental dysfunction

88

žWhat virus is Flaviridiae, broad host range, outbreaks occur the in summer, continuing until fall

-žMosquitoes are infected by birds, and then infect humans when they bite

ž80% of the bitten are asymptomatic, others develop Fever

žAbout 1 in 150 develop encephaitis or meningitis

žPeople over the age of 50 at greatest risk

West Nile Virus

89

žThis disease, which originated in Africa, caused 1,820 cases in the US in 2014. In Texas in 2014 there have been 269 cases, divided into 94 cases of West Nile fever and 175 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Eleven of these were in Dallas County, 8 each in Collin and Tarrant counties, and 5 in Denton County.

West Nile Virus

90

žA viral disease arising in Africa, Chickungunya is mosquito borne. It does not spread person to person. It causes joint pain, fever and nausea. There have been 48 cases in Texas in 2014, with 4 in Dallas County, 6 in Tarrant County, 5 in Denton County, and 2 in Collin County.

Chikungunya

91

žWhat Virus was First discovered in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys

žFirst discovered in humans in Uganda in 1952

žCarried by the same mosquito that carries Chikungunya, Dengue Fever, and Yellow Fever

žMosquito is most active in daytime, especially early morning and late afternoon

Zika Virus

92

What virus has the following signs and symptoms

žFever

žMacropapular skin rashes starting on the face

žConjunctivitis

žMuscle and joint pain

žMalaise

žHeadache

These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days

Zika

93

žZika virus disease is usually mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.

žZika virus disease is usually mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.

94

True or false

There is a vaccine available for Zika

False No Vaccine

95

The WHO has concluded that Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of _________ _______ ______, including microcephaly; and that Zika virus is a trigger of ____-____ syndrome. Intense efforts are continuing to investigate the link between Zika virus and a range of neurological disorders

congenital brain abnormalities

Guillain-Barré

96

What are some precautions we can take to prevent Zika?

Use OFF!

Wear clothes that cover most of the skin

Have mosquito screens

remove standing water

97

–The mosquito that carries Zika usually does not travel more than ____ yards from its origin

200