Rat Lab Practical

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created 4 years ago by Ashlee_Lannette_Hunter
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Info for test 3.
updated 4 years ago by Ashlee_Lannette_Hunter
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bio lab 1301
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1

Dorsal

toward the upper surface (back)

2

Ventral

toward the lower surface (belly)

3

Anterior

toward the head

4

Posterior

toward the tail

5

Cranial

toward the head

6

Caudal

toward the tail

7

Medial

toward the midline of the body

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Proximal

toward the end of the appendage nearest the body

9

Lateral

away from the midline of the body; toward the side

10

Distal

toward the end of an appendage farthest away from the body

11

Frontal Plane

divides the body into dorsal and ventral halves; two-dimensional plane parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and perpendicular to the dorsal-ventral axis

12

Transverse Plane

a cross section; two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the anterior-posterior axis of the body

13

Sagittal Plane

divides the body into left and right halves; two-dimensional plane parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and parallel to the dorsal-ventral axis

14

Origin

the end attached to the bone that does not move during contraction

15

Insertion

the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves during contraction

16

Extensor

increases angle of a joint

17

Flexor

decreases the angle of a joint

18

Abductors

move an appendage away from the midline of the body

19

Adductors

move an appendage toward the midline of the body

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Retractors

move an appendage backward

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Protractors

move an appendage forward

22

Supinator

Rotate the palm or bottom of foot upward

23

Pronator

Rotate the palm or bottom of foot downward

24

Gastrocnemius

Forms the bulk of the calf muscle in the lower leg

Origin: distal end of femur

Insertion: heel (tendon of achilles)

Action: extends the foot

25

Biceps Femoris

Two bundles; side of the thigh

Origin: ischium

Insertion: distal portion of femur and proximal portion of tibia

Action: abducts the thigh and flexes the shank

26

External Oblique

Covers the sides of the abdominal cavity from the hip to the rib cage

Origin: lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs

Insertion: linea alba and pelvis

Action: compresses and retains the viscera and acts with the rectus abdominis to form a flexible ventral and lateral body wall

27

Spinotrapezius

Lays across the dorsal thoracic region of the rat

Origin: thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: spine of the scapula

Action: moves the scapula dorsally

28

Latissimus Dorsi

Posterior to and partially covered by the spinotrapezius

Origin: thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: medial side of the humerus

Action: moves the humerus dorsocaudad

29

Biceps Brachii

Located on the anterior surface of the humerus

Origin: Scapula

Insertion: radius

Action: flexes the lower arm

30

Triceps Brachii

Located on the sides and back of the upper arm

Origin: humerus and scapula

Insertion: elbow

Action: extends the lower arm

31

Spinotrapezius

Dorsal thoracic region

Origin: thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: spine of the scapula

Action: moves the scapula upward and backward

32

Acromiotrapezius

central muscle of the trapezius group

Origin: cervical vertebrae

Insertion: scapula

Action: moves the scapula dorsally

33

Cutaneous Trunci

attaches to the skin on the lateral and dorsal sides of the body

Origin: under the upper front leg

Insertion: skin

Action: moves the skin

34

Organs of the head and neck

Salivary glands- sublingual, parotid, submaxillary - secrete saliva that contains amylase

Thyroid gland- secretes thyroxin, two lobes connected by isthmus of thyroid

Trachea

Larynx

35

Thoracic Organs

Heart- atria and ventricles covered in pericardium

Thymus gland- develops the immune system

Lungs- air enters from bronchial tubes which end in alveoli

36

Abdominal Organs

Coelom- body cavity in which the viscera (internal organs) are suspended, covered in a membraneous tissue called peritoneum formed from mesoderm

Parietal peritoneum- covers the walls of the abdominal cavity

Visceral peritoneum- covers the internal organs

Mesenteries- thin membranes that connect the internal organs to the dorsal body wall

Omentia- thin membranes extending from the visceral peritoneums and connect organ to organ

Liver- produces bile to transform useful nutrients- median or cystic lobe; left and right lateral lobes; caudate lobe

Esophagus

Stomach- entrance called cardiac sphincter, exit called pyloric sphincter

Spleen

Pancreas- secretes and releases insulin

Small intestine- consists of the duodenum which receives enzymes and villi

Colon (large intestine)- ileocecal valve controls the flow of food into colon, ends in anus - cecum: rich in microorganisms that aid in digestion - ascending colon - transverse colon - descending colon -rectum: temporarily stores feces before they are evacuated

37

Urogenital system

Excretory organs, kidneys, renal artery, renal vein, ureter, urinary bladder, renal pelvis, urethra, adrenal glands

38

Male Reproductive Organs

Testes (scrotal sac), epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, seminal fluid

39

Female Reproductive Organs

Vagina, uterine horns, ovaries, oviducts

40

Circulatory System

Pulmonary circulation- carries blood through the lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart

Systemic circulation- moves blood through the body after it has left the heart

41

Heart and Pulmonary System

Blood from the posterior portion of the body enters the right atrium of the heart through the inferior vena cava

Blood from the anterior portion of the body enters through the right and left superior venae cavae

Blood flows from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle

Blood then goes through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary trunk which divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries which carry deoxygenated blood

Blood then flows through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs to be oxygenized

Blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart via pulmonary veins and flows through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle

42

Heart and Systematic Arteries

Blood leaves the left ventricle through the aortic semilunar valve and flows into the aorta

The aorta divides into the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta and the abdominal aorta

43

Head and Neck

Jugular vein, carotid artery, superior vena cava, ascending aorta, atrium

44

Abdominal

Abdominal Aorta, renal artery, renal vein, inferior vena cava, hepatic portal vein

45

Epithelial tissue

Protect the body by covering the exterior of an organism, lining the gut, and coelomic cavity

Protect from dehydration and mechanical damage

Provide a selectively permeable barrier

Provide sensory surfaces

Secrete fluids

Classified intro simple (one layer), stratified (multiple layers) and glandular

46

Simple Epithelium

Classified according to shape; squamous, cuboidal and columnar

47

Simple squamous

Provides a minimal barrier to diffusion

Can be found lining the alveoli of the lungs, filtration system of the kidneys and the major cavities of the body

Relatively inactive and for passive movement of water, electrolytes and other substances

48

Simple Cuboidal and Columnar

Cuboidal and Columnar are 'fuller' and shaped accordingly

Line respiratory and intestinal tracts and ducts such as in the kidney tubules

Often have cilia and secrete fluids

49

Pseudostratified Epithelium

Trachea columnar with cilia

Appear to be stratified due to nucleus arrangement

50

Stratified Epithelium

Several layers thick with the upper level typically being squamous, middle cuboidal, and basal columnar

Skin is a great example of stratified epithelium

51

Glandular Epithelium

Highly modified epithelial cells that do not function as a protective covering

Metabolically active more so than simple

Exocrine glands found in liver, mammary glands and pancreas

52

Connective tissue

support and defend the body and store food

Not tightly packed and are typically suspended in an extracellular matrix of fibers

Classified into connective tissue proper (loose and dense), and special connective tissues (blood, cartilage, bone).

53

Connective Tissue Proper

Loose connective tissue consists of cells scattered with an amorphous mass of proteins that form a ground substance (areolar, reticulin, macrophages)

54

Areolar Tissue

Areolar (subcutaneous) tissue consists of collagen fiber, elastic fiber, and fibroblasts (branching cells that secrete matrix of protein fibers)

Collagen is most common protein, fibroblasts also secrete elastin fibers

55

Reticular tissue

Reticulin is a thin branching fiber that supports glands (spleen and lymph)

Also composes junctions between several other kinds of tissues

56

Macrophages

Immune systems' first defense against invaders

engulf and digest cellular debris, invading bacteria and foreign particles

Move individually in circulating fluids of the body or remain in fixed organs (liver or spleen)

57

Adipose tissue

Contains a droplet of fat in the form of triglycerides

To generate energy, the cell hydrolyzes the triglycerides and secretes fatty acids into the blood for oxidation by cells in other organs

Adults have a fixed number of adipose cells, weight gain and loss is related to filling and emptying of adipose cells

58

Connective Tissue Proper

Dense connective tissue contains tightly packed collagen fibers

Tendons connect muscle to bone and derive their strength from regular, longitudinal arrangement of bundles of collagen

Ligaments bind bone to bone

59

Special connective tissue

Characterized by extracellular matrix

Includes blood, cartilage and bone

60

Blood

Blood and plasma maintain proper body pH, transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

Includes erythrocytes (red), leukocytes (white), and platelets (enucleated fragments of bone marrow cells)

Erythrocytes sequester hemoglobin which binds oxygen for transport, no nuclei

Leukocytes function in defense

Platelets are small and sequester chemicals and enzymes for clotting

61

Cartilage

Found in skeletal joints and derives its resilience and support from chondrites, and extracellular gelatinous matrix

Chondrocytes secrete chondrites and reside in cavities called lacunae

62

Hyaline Cartilage

Hyaline cartilage contains chondrites and fine collagenous fibers

63

Elastic Cartilage

Elastic cartilage contains fine collagenous fibers and many dark elastic fibers

64

Bone

Consists of collagen fibers surrounded by hard crystals of calcium salts

Osteocytes- bone cells that maintain fibrous and crystalline matrix

Lamellae are the layers of bone that are made up of a series of tubes around narrow channels called Haversian canals that surround blood vessels and nerve cells

Canaliculi are the lacunae through which bone and nerve cells communicate

65

Muscle tissue

Muscle has the ability to contract through the interaction of actin and myosin filaments which occur in abundance in muscle

Myofibrils are bundles of these contractile filaments and occur within a single muscle cell

Muscle tissue consist of skeletal, smooth and cardiac tissue

66

Skeletal muscle

Striated muscles attached to the skeleton and controlled coluntarily

Cell is a long fiber of regularly arranged contractile units with nuclei scattered at the outer boundaries

Cells are coalesced (merged) into a fiber

Stacked array

67

Smooth muscle

Long and spindle-shaped with a single nucleus

Line the walls of the gut and blood vessels and have involuntary contraction

Organized into sheets of cells that contract slowly and rhythmically

In uterus and intestine

68

Cardiac muscle

heart muscle is striated but involuntary

Composed of chains of single, uninucleate cells with intercalated disks

69

Nervous Tissue

Consists of neurons and their supporting cells

Neurons are specialized for transmitting nerve impulses and consist of a cell body and cytoplasmic extensions that conduct impulses

Dendrites- short extensions that carry impulses toward the cell body

Axons- long extensions that carry impulses away from cell body

Supporting cells (Schwann cells) help propagate the nerve impulse and provide nutrients to neurons

70

External rat anatomy

Pelage- hairy coat

Vibrissae- whiskers

Nares- nostrils

Incisors- large front teeth

Pinna- external ear