Chapter 19—Infection and Disease

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1

Microbiota: Normal Flora of the body

Microbiota: Normal Flora of the body

2

Microbiota may be of 3 different things. What are they?

Symbiosis, Commensalism, and Mutualism

3

Normal flora living together is called?

Symbiosis

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Normal flora that both benefit are called?

Mutualism

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Normal flora that doesn't affect the host benefits, benefits the microbe are called

Commensalism

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What are the 5 stages of Disease?

Incubation--> Prodromal---> Acme---> Period of decline---> period convalesce

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What stage of disease is the following?

›Entry of microbe to appearance of first symptoms

Incubation Period

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What stage of disease is the following?

›General symptoms, nausea, headache, etc.

›May be clinical or subclinical

žProdromal phase

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What stage of disease is the following?

›Climax, disease at greatest intensity

žAcme period

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What stage of disease is the following?

›Symptoms become less, patient improving

žPeriod of decline

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What stage of disease is the following?

›Body returns to normal

žPeriod of convalescence

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Diseases may be Acute or _____

Chronic

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What disease

›Develop rapidly

›Have severe symptoms

›Comes to an obvious climax

›Recovery usually fast after climax

›Acute diseases may become chronic

What is an acute disease?

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What disease

›Symptoms develop slowly

›Climax seldom occurs

›Convalescence may continue for months

žChronic diseases

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What are the 6 portal entries?

  1. Contact
  2. Respiratory droplets
  3. animal contact
  4. contaminated food and water
  5. Fomites (no living objects)
  6. Injection of contaminants
  7. Arthropod bites
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›May depend on portal of entry

›If low enough, may not cause disease, but may activate immunity

Infectious dose

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›Capsules/slime layers

›Flagella

›Pili

Adhesins

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›Ability to penetrate tissue and cause damage

Invasiveness

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What helps microbe overcome host defenses and establish disease

Virulence Factors

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›Coagulase

–Causes protective clot formation

What is an Enzyme

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–Dissolves clots that prevent bacterial invasion

What is Streptokinase?

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–Enhances penetration

What is Hyaluronidase?

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–Destroy wbc’s

What is Leukocidins

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–Destroy rbc’s by hemolysis—release iron

Destroys RBC by hemolysis- release of iron

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Toxins cause _____

žtoxemia

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›proteins,Secreted from bacterial cells

What are Exotoxins

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What toxin affects the Nerves?

Neurotoxins

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What toxins affects antibodies that neutralize toxins?

Antitoxin

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›lipid

–Produced by G- bacteria

–Released on death of cell

–Cause ________ shock

endotoxins

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True or False

Portals of exit are necessary to survival of a pathogen

TRUE

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What are some portals of exit?

Coughing and sneezing, Open lesion, through removal of blood, by an insect bite, in the feces or urine

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Ecological niche--- where pathogen exists, _______ with other organisms in its _____

competes,

niche

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žNiches can be called ________ of infection

reservoirs

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žCarrier—recovered patient who still sheds _______

pathogens

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žCommunicable disease—one that is _______, transmitted from host to _______

contagious, host

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žNoncommunicable disease—acquired from ________, NOT transmittable from host to host

environment

37

True or false

Epidemiology is how diseases are distributed in a population

True

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What are some factors influencing distribution?

  1. Direct contact: Horizontal or Vertical transmission
  2. Indirect contact: Fomites
  3. Vehicle transmission:Contaminated food, water, or air
  4. žParticle transmission:Aerosols
  5. žArthropod vectors:Mechanical—carry disease on legs, Biological—must bite
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What disease always present in a population?

Endemic disease

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What disease increase in level of disease normally found?

-Epidemic disease

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What disease is a contained epidemic

Outbreak

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What disease is a žworld wide epidemic

Pandemic