anatomy exam 4; leg, dorsum of foot and ankle muscles

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1

Interosseous membrane: tibiofibular syndesmosis

Unites the shafts of the tibia and fibula. Site of muscle attachment in the leg.

2

Bones of the foot

calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, cuneiforms (medial, intermediate, lateral)

3

components of calcaneus bone

sustentaculum tali

fibular trochlea ( bump on lateral side of the calcaneus)

calcaneal tuberosity

4

components of talus bone

talar head

medial and lateral tubercle

5

component of cuboid bone

tuberosity of the cuboid

6

component of the navicular bone in foot

navicular tuberosity

7

muscles of anterior compartment of the leg

tibialis anterior

extensor digitorum longus

extensor hallucis longus

fibularis tertius

8

tibialis anterior attachments

lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia; interosseous membrane (proximal)

medial cuneiform and first metatarsal (distal)

9

tibialis anterior innervation

deep fibular nerve (L4)

10

tibialis anterior actions

dorsiflexion of ankle and inversion of the foot

11

extensor digitorum longus attachments

lateral condyle of tibia; superior 3/4 of medial fibula(proximal)

middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes (distal)

12

extensor digitorum longus innervation

deep fibular nerve

13

extensor digitorum longus actions

dorsiflexion of ankle and extension of lateral 4 toes.

14

extensor hallucis longus attachments

middle part of anterior fibula; interosseous membrane (proximal)

dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx great toe (distal)

15

extensor hallucis longus innervation

deep fibular nerve

16

extensor hallucis longus actions

extend great toe and dorsiflexion of the ankle

17

fibularis tertius attachments

inferior 1/3 of fibula; interosseous membrane (proximal)

dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal (distal)

18

fibularis tertius innervation

deep fibular nerve

19

fibularis tertius actions

dorsiflexion of the ankle and evert the foot

20

nerve and artery in the anterior compartment of the leg

nerve: deep fibular nerve

artery: anterior tibial artery

21

anterior compartment of leg: extensor retinaculum

superior: passes from fibula to tibia, proximal to malleoli.

inferior: Y-shaped band, loops around the tendons of the fibularis tertius and the extensor digitorum longus muscles.

22

where is the neurovascular bundle in anterior compartment of leg

between extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus

23

attachments for extensor digitorum brevis

calcaneus; talocalcaneal ligament; inferior extensor retinaculum (proximal)

long flexor tendons of 4 lateral toes (distal)

24

innervation of extensor digitorum brevis

deep fibular nerve

25

actions of extensor digitorum brevis

aid in extension of toes

26

extensor hallucis brevis attachments

calcaneus; talocalcaneal ligament, and inferior extensor retinaculum (same as EDB) (proximal)

dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of great toe (distal)

27

extensor hallucis brevis innervation

deep fibular nerve

28

extensor hallucis longus actions

aids in extension of great toe

29

3 muscles of lateral compartment of leg

-fibularis longus

-fibularis brevis

-superior fibular retinaculum

30

fibularis longus attachments

head and superior 1/3 of fibula (proximal)

base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform (distal)

31

fibularis longus innervation

superficial fibular nerve (L5, S1)

32

fibularis longus actions

evert foot and weakly plantar flex

33

attachments of fibularis brevis

inferior 2/3 of lateral fibula (proximal)

dorsal surface of tuberosity of 5th metatarsal

34

fibularis brevis innervation

superficial fibular nerve (L4, L5)

35

fibularis brevis actions

evert foot and weakly plantar flex ankle

36

nerve of the lateral compartment of the leg

superficial fibular nerve;

there is no artery in lateral compartment

37

7 muscles of posterior leg (3 superficial, 4 deep)

superficial: gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris

deep: popliteus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior

38

triceps surae

3 headed muscle of the calf.

gastrocnemius (with a lateral and medial head), soleus, and calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon)

39

gastrocnemius attachments

condyles of femur; popliteal surface of femur (proximal)

calcaneal tendon

40

gastrocnemius innervation

tibial nerve (S1, S2)

41

gastrocnemius actions

plantar flex ankle and flex leg at knee

42

soleus attachments

posterior aspect of head of fibula; superior 1/4 posterior aspect of fibula; posterior aspect of tibia above the soleal line (proximal)

calcaneal tendon (distal)

43

soleus innervation

tibial nerve (S1, S2)

44

soleus actions

plantar flex ankle;

this muscle does not pass the knee joint!!

45

plantaris attachments

inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur; oblique popliteal ligament (proximal)

calcaneal tendon (distal)

46

plantaris innervation

tibial nerve (S1, S2)

47

plantaris actions

plantar flex ankle

48

popliteus attachments

lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle and lateral meniscus (proximal)

posterior tibia above soleal line (distal)

49

popliteal innervation

tibial nerve (L4-S1)

50

popliteal actions

flex knee; lateral rotation of femur (unlocks femur)

51

flexor hallucis longus attachments

inferior 2/3 posterior surface of the fibula; interosseous membrane (proximal)

base of distal phalanx of great toe on plantar surface (distal)

52

flexor hallucis longus innervation

tibial nerve (S2, S3)

53

flexor hallucis longus actions

flex great toe, plantar flex ankle, and support medial longitudinal arch

54

flexor digitorum longus attachments

medial part of posterior tibia inferior to soleal line; fibula (proximal)

bases of distal phalanges of lateral 4 toes

55

flexor digitorum longus innervation

tibial nerve (S2, S3)

56

flexor digitorum longus actions

flex lateral 4 digits

plantar flex ankle

support longitudinal arches

57

tibialis posterior attachments

interosseous membrane; posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line; posterior surface of the fibula (proximal)

tuberosity of navicular; cuneiform and cuboid; bases of 2-4 metatarsals

58

tibialis posterior innervation

tibial nerve (L4, L5)

59

tibialis posterior actions

plantar flex ankle and invert foot

60

vessels and nerves of posterior compartment of the leg

nerves: tibial nerve and sural nerve

arteries: posterior tibial artery and fibular artery

61

tarsal tunnel (tom, dick, and very nervous harry)

tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus