Health Psychology: An Introduction to Behavior and Health: Defining, Measuring, and Managing Stress Flashcards


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1

Neurons

individual cells that function electrochemically. electrically charged ions hold the potential for an electrical discharge

2

Neurotransmitters

the release of chemicals that are manufactured within each neuron and stored in vesicles at the end of the neurons

3

Synaptic Cleft

the space between neurons that released NTs diffuse across

4

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Consists of the brain and spinal cord

5

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

consists of all other neurons and divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems

6

Life events

emphasize the importance of change. when people are required to make some sort of change or readjustment, they feel stressed. Usually evolve more slowly

7

Autonomic Nervous System

primarily serves internal organs and is involved in responses to stress. divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system

8

Sympathetic Nervous System

mobilizes the body's resources in an emergency, stressful, and emotional situations. Reactions include in an increase in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, constriction of blood vessels on the skin, a decrease in GI activity, dilation of pupils, activation of sweat glands

9

Parasympathetic Nervous System

promotes relaxation and functions under normal, nonstressful conditions.

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Acetylcholine

one of the major NTs of the ANS

11

hormones

chemicals released into the bloodstream to be carried to different parts of the body from the glands of the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems

12

Pituitary Gland

referred to as the "master gland" because it produces a number of hormones that affect other glands and prompt the production of other hormones

13

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

hormone produced by the anterior portion of the pituitary gland which plays an essential role in the stress response. Acts on the adrenal glands

14

Adrenal Glands

endocrine glands located on top of each kidney

15

Adrenal Cortex

the outer covering of adrenal glands which secretes hormones important in the response to stress

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Adrenal Medulla

the inner part of the adrenal gland which secretes hormones important in the response to stress

17

Adrenocortical Response

occurs when ACTH from the pituitary stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids

18

Cortisol

The level of this hormone circulating in the blood can be used as an index of stress. Its peak levels appear 20-40 mins after a stressor.

19

Adrenomedullary Response

occurs when the sympathetic nervous system activates the adrenal medulla which prompts secretion of catecholamines

20

Catecholamines

class of chemicals containing epinephrine and norepinephrine

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Epinephrine (adrenaline)

produces exclusively by the adrenal medulla and accounts for about 80% of the hormone production of the adrenal glands

22

Norepinephrine

NT that can work at the synapse AND as a hormone circulating through the body and is produced in other parts of the body

23

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

generalized attempt to defend itself against noxious agents. divided into 3 stages

1. Alarm Reaction 2. Resistance Stage 3. Exhaustion Stage

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Alarm Reaction

The first stage of GAS where the body's systems are activated to maximize strength and prepares them for the flight or flight response.

25

Resistance Stage

The second stage of GAS where the organism adapts to the stressor. the length of this stage depends on the severity of the stressor and the adaptive capacity of the individual. if the individual can adapt, the resistance stage will continue for a long time

26

Exhaustion Stage

The final stage of GAS where organism's ability to resist is depleted and a breakdown results. The parasympathetic system is then activated.

27

Primary Appraisal

One's initial appraisal of a potentially stressful event

28

Secondary Appraisal

an impression people develop of their ability to control or cope with harm, threat, or challenge

29

Life events

emphasize the importance of change. when people are required to make some sort of change or readjustment, they fell stressed. Usually evolve more slowly

30

Daily hassles

part of everyday life. stress can originate from both of the physical and psychosocial environment

31

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

An anxiety disorder caused by experience with an extremely traumatic event and characterized by recurrent and intrusive reexperiencing of the event

32

Population Density

A physical condition in which a large population occupies a limited space.

33

Crowding

A psychological condition that arises from a person's perception of the high-density environment in which that person is confined.

34

Coping

strategies individuals use to manage the distressing problems and emotions in their lives

35

Social Support

variety of material and emotional supports a person receives from others. High in social contacts and networks

36

Social Contacts or network

Refer to the number and types of people with whom one associates

37

Social Isolation

Refers to an absence of specific, meaningful interpersonal relations. Low in Social contacts and networks

38

Personal Control

a feeling that may affect people's ability to cope with stressful life events that is confident that they have some control over the events that shape their lives.

39

Problem-Focused Coping

coping strategy that is aimed at changing the source of the stress

40

Emotion-Focused Coping

coping strategy that is oriented toward managing the emotions that accompany the perception of stress

41

Proactive Coping

Coping strategy that focuses on anticipating a problem and taking steps to avoid it

42

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

type of therapy that aims to develop beliefs, attitudes, thoughts, and skills to make positive changes in behavior. Focuses on modifying environmental contingencies and building skills to change observable behavior

43

Emotional Disclosure

A therapeutic technique in which people express their strong emotions by talking or writing about negative events that precipitated those emotions.

44

Catharsis

the verbal expression of emotions