Chapter 38: Antibiotics Part 1

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Antibiotics Part 1
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1

Antibiotic

Having the ability to destroy or interfere with the development of a living organism.

2

Antiseptic

One of two types of topical antimicrobial agents; a chemical that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms without necessarily killing them.

3

Bactericidal Antibiotics

Antibiotics that kill bacteria.

4

Bacteriostatic Antibiotics

Antibiotics that do not actually kill bacteria but rather inhibit their growth.

5

Beta-Lactam

The designation for a broad class of antibiotics that includes four subclasses: penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams.

6

Beta-Lactamase

A group of enzymes produced by bacteria that catalyze the chemical opening of the crucial beta-lactam ring.

7

Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors

Medications combined with certain penicillin drugs to block the effect of beta-lactamase enzymes.

8

Colonization

The establishment and growth of microorganisms on the skin, open wounds, or mucous membranes, or in secretions without causing an infection.

9

Community-Associated Infection

An infection that is acquired by persons who have not been hospitalized or had a medical procedure recently.

10

Definitive Therapy

The administration of antibiotics based on known results of culture and sensitivity testing identifying the pathogen causing infection.

11

Disinfectant

One of two types of topical antimicrobial agents; a chemical applied to nonliving objects to kill microorganisms. Also called cidal agents.

12

Empiric Therapy

The administration of antibiotics based on the practitioner's judgment of the pathogens most likely to be causing an apparent infection; it involves the presumptive treatment of an infection to avoid treatment delay before specific culture information has been obtained.

13

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

An inherited disorder in which the red blood cells are partially or completely deficient, a critical enzyme in the metabolism of glucose.

14

Health Care‚ÄďAssociated Infection

An infection that is acquired during the course of receiving treatment for another condition in a health care institution. The infection is not present or incubating at the time of admission; also known as a nosocomial infection.

15

Host Factors

Factors that are unique to a particular patient that affect the patient's susceptibility to infection and response to various antibiotic drugs.

16

Infections

Invasions and multiplications of microorganisms in body tissues.

17

Microorganisms

Microscopic living organisms (also called microbes).

18

Prophylactic Antibiotic Therapy

Antibiotics taken before anticipated exposure to an infectious organism in an effort to prevent the development of infection.

19

Pseudomembranous Colitis

A potentially-necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy; often caused by bacteria.

20

Slow Acetylation

A common genetic host factor in which the rate of metabolism of certain drugs is reduced.

21

Subtherapeutic

Generally refers to blood levels below therapeutic levels due to insufficient dosing. Also refers to antibiotic treatment that is ineffective in treating a given infection.

22

Superinfection

(1) An infection occurring during antimicrobial treatment for another infection, resulting from overgrowth of an organism not susceptible to the antibiotic used. (2) A secondary microbial infection that occurs in addition to an earlier primary infection, often due to weakening of the patient's immune system function by the first infection.

23

Teratogens

Substances that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus.

24

Therapeutic

Referring to antibiotic therapy that is given in sufficient doses so that the concentration of the drug in the blood or other tissues renders it effective against specific bacterial pathogens.