Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: 4-Reproductive-Female-Anatomy Flashcards


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1

What are the organs of the female reproductive system

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  • ovaries
  • fallopian tubes
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vulva
  • mammary glands
2

Parts of the ovaries

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  • Germinal epithelium
    • covers surface of ovary
  • Ovarian cortex
    • contains the ovarian follicles
  • Ovarian medulla
    • contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
3

What is the primary role of the ovaries

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To produce mature 2 o oocytes (female gametes) and release one (ovulation) during each monthly ovarian cycle

4

What female hormones do the ovaries secrete

  • estrogen
  • progesterone
  • inhibin
  • relaxin
5

What ligaments are the main anchors for the ovaries

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  • suspensory ligaments of the ovary
    • for pelvic wall attachment
  • ovarian ligament
    • provides an attachment to the side wall of the uterus
6

Fallopian tube size and location

Two tubes that extend laterally from the uterus

7

What is the purpose of the fallopian tubes

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they provide a route for sperm to reach an ovum and transport secondary oocytes and fertilized ova from the ovaries to the uterus

8

Route of ova from ovaries to the uterus

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  • fimbriae
  • infundibulum
  • ampulla
  • isthmus
9

What ligament provides the most support for the uterus

The broad ligament

10

Uterus size and location

A pear shaped organ situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum

11

3 layers of the uterus

  • perimetrium
  • myometrium
  • endometrium
12

What is the purpose of the uterus

  • Serves as part of the pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to reach the uterine tubes
  • Site of implantation of a fertilized ovum, development of the fetus during pregnancy
  • During reproductive cycles when implantation does not occur, the uterus is the source of menstrual flow
13

Anatomical subdivisions of the uterus

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  • Fundus - dome shaped superior portion
  • Body - central portion (uterine cavity)
  • Isthmus - narrow portion off the body
  • Cervix - inferior most portion, opens into the vagina through the cervical canal
14

What is the vagina

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A fibromuscular canal lined with mucous membrane that extends from the exterior of the body to the cervix

Composed of longitudinal and circular muscle

15

What are the 3 basic functions of the vagina

  • Serve as a passageway for menstrual flow
  • Receive sperm
  • Form the lower birth canal
16

What makes up the vulva

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  • Mons pubis (created by adipose tissue)
  • Erectile tissue of the clitoris
  • Labia majora (outer limits of vulva) and labia minora (covers the vestibule)
  • Vestibule, the area between the labia minora
  • Vaginal orifice (opening)
17

What is the perineum

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The diamond-shaped area medial to the thighs and buttocks of females (and males) – the entire undersurface of the pelvis

It contains the external genitalia and anus

18

Female reproductive anatomy picture

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19

What are mammary glands

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  • Located in each breast
  • Modified sudoriferous glands that produce milk
  • Each contains 15–20 lobes divided into lobules
20

What are the alveoli

milk-secreting glands located in the lobules

21

What is the areola

The pigmented area of the nipple

22

What are the lactiferous ducts

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Connects to the lobules and carries milk to the tip of nipple

23

What occurs during the cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus each month

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  • Involves oogenesis (ovarian cycle) and preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum
  • hormones secreted by hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries
24

What hormones are secreted during the ovarian and menstrual cycle

  • GnRH
  • FSH
  • LH
25

When / where does the ovarian cycle occur

In the ovaries where 1 o , 2 o and mature follicles are formed

26

When / where does the menstrual cycle occur

refers to the monthly cycling of the endometrium