Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: 4-Reproductive-Female-Anatomy Flashcards

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What are the organs of the female reproductive system

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  • ovaries
  • fallopian tubes
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vulva
  • mammary glands

Parts of the ovaries

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  • Germinal epithelium
    • covers surface of ovary
  • Ovarian cortex
    • contains the ovarian follicles
  • Ovarian medulla
    • contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves

What is the primary role of the ovaries

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To produce mature 2 o oocytes (female gametes) and release one (ovulation) during each monthly ovarian cycle


What female hormones do the ovaries secrete

  • estrogen
  • progesterone
  • inhibin
  • relaxin

What ligaments are the main anchors for the ovaries

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  • suspensory ligaments of the ovary
    • for pelvic wall attachment
  • ovarian ligament
    • provides an attachment to the side wall of the uterus

Fallopian tube size and location

Two tubes that extend laterally from the uterus


What is the purpose of the fallopian tubes

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they provide a route for sperm to reach an ovum and transport secondary oocytes and fertilized ova from the ovaries to the uterus


Route of ova from ovaries to the uterus

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  • fimbriae
  • infundibulum
  • ampulla
  • isthmus

What ligament provides the most support for the uterus

The broad ligament


Uterus size and location

A pear shaped organ situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum


3 layers of the uterus

  • perimetrium
  • myometrium
  • endometrium

What is the purpose of the uterus

  • Serves as part of the pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to reach the uterine tubes
  • Site of implantation of a fertilized ovum, development of the fetus during pregnancy
  • During reproductive cycles when implantation does not occur, the uterus is the source of menstrual flow

Anatomical subdivisions of the uterus

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  • Fundus - dome shaped superior portion
  • Body - central portion (uterine cavity)
  • Isthmus - narrow portion off the body
  • Cervix - inferior most portion, opens into the vagina through the cervical canal

What is the vagina

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A fibromuscular canal lined with mucous membrane that extends from the exterior of the body to the cervix

Composed of longitudinal and circular muscle


What are the 3 basic functions of the vagina

  • Serve as a passageway for menstrual flow
  • Receive sperm
  • Form the lower birth canal

What makes up the vulva

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  • Mons pubis (created by adipose tissue)
  • Erectile tissue of the clitoris
  • Labia majora (outer limits of vulva) and labia minora (covers the vestibule)
  • Vestibule, the area between the labia minora
  • Vaginal orifice (opening)

What is the perineum

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The diamond-shaped area medial to the thighs and buttocks of females (and males) – the entire undersurface of the pelvis

It contains the external genitalia and anus


Female reproductive anatomy picture

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What are mammary glands

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  • Located in each breast
  • Modified sudoriferous glands that produce milk
  • Each contains 15–20 lobes divided into lobules

What are the alveoli

milk-secreting glands located in the lobules


What is the areola

The pigmented area of the nipple


What are the lactiferous ducts

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Connects to the lobules and carries milk to the tip of nipple


What occurs during the cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus each month

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  • Involves oogenesis (ovarian cycle) and preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum
  • hormones secreted by hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries

What hormones are secreted during the ovarian and menstrual cycle

  • GnRH
  • FSH
  • LH

When / where does the ovarian cycle occur

In the ovaries where 1 o , 2 o and mature follicles are formed


When / where does the menstrual cycle occur

refers to the monthly cycling of the endometrium