Sports Psychology Exam

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1

Flow characteristics

ask

2

Flow vs arousal

ask

3

Challenges to studying flow

Researchers cannot control flow, outsider cannot study it when it is occurring, subjective

4

Negative side of flow

Dependence on the activity once experiencing flow, in some occasions, they get addicted

5

Tuckman's model

Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing. Role acceptance occurs during norming

6

Dual relationship

Group thing in class about vacation.

The individual influences the group and the group influences the individual

7

Group

Two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other. Share four factors

8

Team

A specific type of group that is not random

9

Role clarity

Low team effectiveness, happens during storming

10

Steiner's model

The productivity of the team equals the groups potential productivity minus the losses.

11

Ringlemann Effect

Individual abilities do not add up to total group performance. Pulling on a rope for example

12

Social loafing

The psychological definition for why people don't try as hard

13

Sucker effect

Your teammates aren't motivated and you don't want to be the one that picks up the slack for others (the sucker)

14

Minimizing strategy

Your work gets lost in the crowd and you won't get the rightful recognition so it's not worth the effort

15

Allocation strategy

You don't have to put forth the effort because you know your teammates will help pick up the slack

16

Task cohesion

When a group shares common goals and objectives

17

Social cohesion

Interpersonal attraction among group members

18

Cohesion factors "4"

Environmental (size/age/distinctiveness)

Team (tasks or goals team has)

Leadership (what style leaders possess)

Personal (characteristics of each team member)

19

Coacters vs interactors

ASK QUESTION ON THIS IF POSSIBLE

20

Autocratic vs democratic leadership

Autocratic is a more aggressive style of teaching and will tell people what to do whereas democratic is a more group style of leadership, where they offer guidance and seek input

21

Antecedents of leadership

Age and maturity (Younger athletes prefer democratic style of leadership)

Gender (males prefer autocratic)

Type of sport (interactive sport athletes prefer autocratic compared to a bowler)

22

Consequences of leadership

Cohesion (democratic coaches have higher social cohesion)

Performance (Losing teams need more social support than winning)

Intrinsic motivation (democratic style coaching leads to more IM)

Physical skills development

Life skills

23

PST in and out of sport

Arousal regulation, imagery and mental preparation, confidence building, increased motivation and commitment, increase attention or concentration, self-talk, mental plans

24

Mental toughness

An athlete's ability to focus, rebound from failure, cope with pressure, and persist in the face of adversity

25

PST myths

For elite athletes only, for people with problems, no time for it, you can learn it right away, it can't be learned

26

PST phases

Educational phase

Acquisition phase

Practice phase

27

Arousal regulation

using techniques to control or raise/lower arousal to an OPTIMAL point

28

Somatic anxiety

The physical symptoms of anxiety (butterflies). Ways to regulate are PMR, breath control, and cue words

29

Progressive muscular relaxation PMR

Helps let go of tension. Trains the muscles to respond to your commands. Decrease in muscle tension naturally leads to a decrease in mental tension

30

Cognitive anxiety

The mental effects of anxiety (worrying, concern). Ways to regulate are meditation, systematic desensitization, and hypnosis

31

Systematic desensitization

Expose you to the bad thing until it no longer returns the same negative effects. Exposure to the snake in class

32

Underarousal strategies

ask in class

33

Relaxation strategies

Stay focused on the present, come prepared, take your time,

34

Matching hypothesis

You need a cognitive solution for a cognitive problem and a somatic solution to a somatic problem

35

Psychoneuromuscular theory

If you think it, your body does it. "Imagery activates same muscles that actual movement does, very similarly close activation

36

Symbolic learning theory

Thinking it gives you a blueprint/dress rehearsal. "You get to practice everything in your mind so you are prepared for the game/performance, a chance to prepare for potential occurrences"

37

Psychological skills hypothesis

If you think it, you strengthen the mind. "Imagery develops mental skills. The act of using your mind makes your mind stronger. Mental reps make you more prepared and confident

38

Motivational specific imagery

Imagining oneself accomplishing something good. Eye on a specific prize, goal oriented

39

Motivational general imagery

Imagery used to regulate arousal. Calm self down or pump self up. Think about yourself pumping yourself up or calming self down during a test

40

Cognitive specific imagery

Imagining successfull performance of a skill. Successfully doing a layup, making a three, good technique

41

Cognitive general imagery

Imagining strategies to carry out a win, less specific

42

Internal perspective

Inside of body, your vantage point, benefit of this is a more realistic perspective

43

External perspective

Watching yourself on film, or watching form on video. Less realistic, but able to correct yourself better when watching yourself as a whole

44

Vividness

Using the five senses to make it as detailed as possible

45

Controllability

Learning to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to do

46

Imagery guideline (KNOW FOUR OF THESE)

Practice in many settings

Aim for relaxed concentration

Set realistic expectations

Use vivid and controllable images

Apply imagery to specific situations

Maintain positive focus but practice overcoming mistakes too

Use videotapes, DVDs, and audiotapes as a supplement

Include execution and outcome

Image in real time

47

Definition of a concussion

A brain injury resulting from back and forth movement of the brain in the skull

48

Complications of concussion

Look at slides

49

Why are concussions a psychological issue

They can have a major impact on the brain and thoughts.