Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: 2-Fluids-Electrolytes,Starling Forces, Acid Base Flashcards


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1

What is formed when electrolytes dissolve and dissociate?

Ions

2

What are the functions of Ions

  • Control osmosis of water between body fluid compartments
  • Help maintain the acid-base balance
  • Carry electrical current
  • Serve as cofactors needed for optimal activity of enzymes
3

What is the term “milliequivalent” ( mEq ) used to measure?

The number of electrical charges (electrolytes) in blood serum and other solutions

4

Denoting the number of mEq per liter of solution gives the concentration of _______ or ______ in a given volume of solution

Anions or cations

5

A milliequivalent is ?/1000 of an equivalent?

1/1000

6

What is the mEq of sodium in normal blood plasma?

136 - 146 mEq/L

7

What is the mEq of spotassium in normal blood plasma?

3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L

8

What determines the osmotic contribution of a substance?

card image

The number of milliequivalents

9

Osmotic forces have a definite influence on movement of _____ between body compartments

water

10

Osmotic pressure exerted by proteins on either side of the capillary membrane to move water

  • Oncotic pressure
  • Hydrostatic forces also play a part in water movement
11

Net movement of fluids is controlled by all forces ____1_____ minus all forces ___2____

  1. favoring filtration
  2. opposing filtration
12

Starling equation

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Compares the forces at the arterial end of a capillary with those at the venous end

  • Forces favoring filtration (2) & Forces favoring reabsorption (2)
13

Normally there is nearly as much fluid _________ as there is filtered.

reabsorbed

14

Net pressure at the arterial end of a capillary is ________

  • Outward at 10 mmHg
  • Fluid leaves the capillary (filtration)
15

Net pressure at the venus end of a capillary is _________

-9 mmHg (reabsorption)

16

On average, how much fluid that is filtered is reabsorbed?

85%

17

Starling Forces (photo)

card image
18

A major homeostatic challenge is keeping the ____ concentration (pH) of body fluids at an appropriate level.

H +

19

Metabolic reactions often produce a huge _____ of H+

Excess

20

What would happen if homeostatic mechanisms failed to keep the H+ concentration at an appropriate level?

The pH of body fluids could quickly rise to a lethal level

21

Which systems help maintain the pH of systemic arterial blood?

  • Chemical buffers
  • Lungs
  • Kidneys
22

What is a healthy pH concentration of systemic arterial blood?

7.35 - 7.45

23

What do buffer systems do to balance pH

Act quickly to temporarily bind excess H+ sequestering the highly reactive ions until they can be permanently excreted

24

How does breathing assist in balancing pH

CO2 is exhaled, correcting pH

25

What do the kidney's do to balance pH

  • Excretes ions
  • Slowest mechanism
26

Respiratory acidosis

Occurs whenever CO2 accumulates because of hypoventilation

27

Metabolic acidosis

Occurs whenever non-respiratory acids accumulate

28

Respiratory alkalosis

Occurs whenever too much CO2

is lost because of hyperventilation

29

Metabolic alkalosis

Occurs whenever non-respiratory acids are lost

30

Which are more common and serious? States of acidosis or states of alkalosis?

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states of acidosis