Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: 6-Development-Labor & Lactation Flashcards


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1

Labor

  • Parturition
  • the bringing of the fetus to birth through delivery
2

What causes labor to begin

Determined by interactions between several placental and fetal hormones

3

What occurs in estrogen levels at the end of pregnancy

  • Levels rise sharply
4

What do the high levels of estrogen do at the end of pregnancy

  • Overcome the inhibiting effect of progesterone on uterine contractions
  • Increase the number of oxytocin receptors on the uterine muscle fibers
5

Why do the number of oxytocin receptors increase on the uterine muscle fibers

Makes the uterus more sensitive to the contractions induced by oxytocin at the same time that relaxin is released to dilate the cervix

6

How does relaxin help during labor

Dilates the cervix

7

What are the 3 stages of labor

  • Stage of dilation
  • Stage of expulsion
  • Placental Stage
8

Stage of dilation

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  • First stage of labor - onset to complete dilation of cervix (10 cm)
  • Longest stage - 6 to 12 hours, sometimes much longer
  • Can be hastened by intentionally rupturing the amniotic membranes
9

Stage of expulsion

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  • 2nd stage of labor
  • Contractions force the fetal head into the cervix, stretching it. Stretch receptors cause release of more oxytocin, which in turn leads to stronger, more frequent contractions…and more stretching
  • Cycle broken when delivery is accomplished
10

Placental Stage

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5–30 minutes (or more) after delivery until the placenta or “afterbirth” is expelled by powerful uterine contractions

11

Lactation

The production and ejection of milk from the mammary glands

12

What is the principal hormone in promoting milk production

Prolactin (PRL)

13

Where is PRL produced

Anterior pituitary gland

14

Why doesn't milk production occur during pregnancy

  • Progesterone inhibits the effects of prolactin
  • Inhibition is removed after delivery
15

When is the milk ejection reflex initiated

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When touch receptors in the nipple are stimulated, sending sensory nerve impulses to the hypothalamus,and causing release of oxytocin

16

What does oxytocin do during lactation

  • Carried by the bloodstream to the mammary glands
  • Stimulates contraction of the glandular cells and ducts in the breast
17

When does true milk appear after delivery

The 4th day

18

What does the breast secrete during the first few days after delivery

Colostrum

19

Colostrum

  • A cloudy fluid that is secreted during breastfeeding the first 3 days after delivery
  • Contains important antibodies
20

What occurs to the ovarian cycle during lactation

  • Blocked for a few months after delivery
  • Not a reliable form of birth control
21

What respiratory adjustments occur to the baby at birth

The first deep, vigorous inspiration inflates the collapsed lungs for the first time

22

What cardiovascular changes occur to the baby at birth

Blood flow and pressure closes the foramen ovale and diverts deoxygenated blood to the lungs